The role of women in aquaculture in the Philippines: obstacles and future options
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Felsing, M., & Baticados, D. (2001). The role of women in aquaculture in the Philippines: obstacles and future options. In K. Kusakabe & G. Kelkar (Eds.), Gender concerns in aquaculture in southeast Asia (pp. 85–92). Bangkok, Thailand: Gender and Development Studies, School of Environment Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology.
PublisherGender and Development Studies, School of Environment Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology
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The plight of older women in a fishing village: The women fish traders of Bugtong Bato, Aklan, central Philippines L dela Pena & CL Marte - In MJ Williams, MC Nandeesha, VP Corral, E Tech & PS Choo (Eds.), International Symposium on Women in Asian Fisheries: Fifth Asian Fisheries Forum, 13 November 1998, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2001 - ICLARMThe changing nature of the fisheries in Bugtong Bato, a small fishing community in Central Philippines has also changed the role of women, particularly of older women, in the community. Until the 1980s, fishing used mainly traditional gears and methods and was highly seasonal. The livelihood activities of men were highly diversified, and fishermen undertook seasonal outmigration to the sugarcane plantations in Negros. Younger women and women of child-bearing age attended to domestic chores, helped their husbands prepare for the day's fishing activities, sought employment as domestic helpers in the capital town or Manila, or engaged in seasonal jobs such as rice harvesting or sinamay fiber knotting. Older women mainly attended to domestic chores. With the introduction of new fishing gears and methods, seasonal outmigration has virtually stopped. The men who participated in group fishing financed by local financiers earn better incomes from these new fishing techniques. However, as fishing now requires longer periods at sea, older fishermen are unable to join their younger counterparts, and rely only on traditional fishing methods for their livelihood. Due to physical limitations and poor health, older fishermen are unable to earn enough to support their families, and their wives seek supplementary means of livelihood. The introduction of new fishing gears and methods has increased considerably the volume of fish landed and spurred the development of a new economic activity in this community - that of fish trading. Most fish traders are older women whose husbands are unable to fish or whose income from fishing cannot meet their daily needs. As such, older women in this community have assumed the role of primary providers for their families.
Conference paperMJ Williams, R Agbayani, R Bhujel, MG Bondad-Reantaso, C Brugère, PS Choo, J Dhont, A Galmiche-Tejeda, K Ghulam, K Kusakabe, D Little, MC Nandeesha, P Sorgeloos, N Weeratunge, S Williams & P Xu - In RP Subasinghe, JR Arthur, DM Bartley, SS De Silva, M Halwart, N Hishamunda, CV Mohan & P Sorgeloos (Eds.), Farming the Waters for People and Food. Proceedings of the Global Conference on Aquaculture 2010, Phuket, Thailand, 22-25 September 2010, 2012 - FAO; NACAPeople are at the heart of sustaining aquaculture. Development of human capacity and gender, therefore, is an important human dimension. Human capacity development (HCD) was a major thrust of the 2000 Bangkok Declaration and Strategy, but gender was not addressed. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation's (FAO) Strategic Framework for Human Capacity Development (HCD) emphasized building human capacity in a coherent fashion at four levels - in individuals, organizations, sectors/networks and in the overall enabling environment. Although strategic HCD in aquaculture has not received attention, substantial HCD has occurred in aquaculture education and training. Aquaculture departments in universities, aquaculture research institutes, networks and professional societies all include training as central activities. Women are active participants in aquaculture supply chains, but a dearth of gender-disaggregated information hampers accurate understanding of their contribution. Research results and FAO National Aquaculture Sector Overview (NASO) fact sheets show that female participation rates vary by type and scale of enterprise and country. Women are frequently active in hatcheries and dominate fish processing plant labourers. Women's work in small-scale aquaculture frequently is unrecognized, under or unpaid. Most aquaculture development projects are not gender sensitive, and aquaculture success stories often do not report gender dimensions; projects can fail if their designs do not include gender. Lacking gender-disaggregated data on participation rates and trends in education, we conducted a preliminary survey of aquaculture tertiary institutes in Africa, Asia, Europe and North America. The percentage of female graduates in aquaculture increased considerably over the last four decades, from zero or low numbers in the 1970s to recent rates of around 30-60 percent; rates vary both by country and within countries. No data are available to track whether female graduates are entering successful careers in aquaculture. To accelerate HCD to meet the needs of aquaculture growth, commodity and theme priorities for HCD must be established. Educational institutions should cooperate and harmonize work programmes and overcome language barriers. Aquaculture education needs the best students and should help prepare them for rewarding careers. More social science content is needed in aquaculture curricula to groom graduates for management and leadership roles. The gender balance in aquaculture faculty could be improved by recruiting and retaining more women. Gender should be put firmly on the policy agenda and built into normative instruments, old and new, complemented by the collection of gender-disaggregated data for aquaculture supply chains. Women should be empowered through gender equity in access to financial, natural, training and market resources. Women in aquaculture should not be stereotyped as 'small-scale' and poor. Women are often hampered by systemic barriers such as lack of legal rights. Women should be encouraged to build their management, leadership and entrepreneural skills. In circumstances where rural men have migrated for work, small-scale aquaculture has proven a suitable livelihood option to reduce the pressure on women. Because postharvest processing and fish trade are feminized occupations, gender equity deserves special attention in fair trade and fish certification schemes. HCD and gender are receiving more attention in rehabilitation efforts to assist survivors from disease and natural disasters.
ArticleSV Siar & LM Cañeba -
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 1998 - Taylor & FrancisThis paper presents a case study of time use and contribution to the household income of men, women, and children in 12 households in a fishing village in Panay Island, central Philippines. The study highlights the differential impact of poverty on men and women and provides a glimpse of the intrahousehold dynamics within poor fishing households. Findings in previous studies in both industrialized and developing countries that women work longer hours than men were corroborated. Women contribute at least 22% to the household cash income and 40% of the value of unpaid labour. Their contribution to the household cash income becomes larger than that of men's when the value of livestock is computed. Women's daily participation in productive activities, such as fish vending and shucking oyster and mussel, unwittingly puts them in a position of being environmental recorders and verifiers of the state of fishery resources. Because they are burdened with the responsibility of making ends meet, they are also confronted with the challenge of realizing the dream of sending their children to university to enable them to escape poverty. This alone makes women one of the strongest stakeholders in the sustainable development of fishery resources.