Now showing items 1-20 of 81

    • Book chapter

      Aeration system at the Tigbauan Research Station of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC/AQD) 

      PM Gavieta - In Report of the National Consultative Meeting on Aquaculture Engineering, 2-5 October 1985, Philippines, 1986 - ASEAN/UNDP/FAO Regional Small Scale Coastal Fisheries Development Project
      Roots blowers are used to meet aeration requirements at the Tigbauan Research Station (TRS) of the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department in Iloilo. Air is delivered through a system of PVC pipes and plastic tubing attached to air cocks. Water depth aerated ranges from 0.15 m to 2.1 m. Diffuser aerators and air lift circulators are commonly used. Improvements made since the system was set up in 1974 include burying of PVC lines to prevent rapid deterioration from direct exposure to sunlight and adoption of a closed loop pipe system to achieve even pressure distribution. The aeration system is working well at present, but some improvements and modifications are being worked out. Studies and revisions proposed to further improve the aeration system are: determining rates of oxygen transfer occurring in culture tanks, segregating small tanks from big ones, installation of suitable air filters to eliminate contaminants, and exercise of vigilance in spotting leaks and defective outlets.
    • Book chapter

      Amino and fatty acid profiles of wild-sourced grouper (Epinephelus coioides) broodstock and larvae 

      VR Alava, FMP Priolo, JD Toledo, JC Rodriguez Jr., GF Quinitio, AC Sa-an, MR de la Peña & RD Caturao - In MA Rimmer, S McBride & KC Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture, 2004 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
      Series: ACIAR Monograph 110
      This study was undertaken to provide information on the levels of amino acids in the muscle, liver and gonad of wild-sourced broodstock and larvae, as well as in neurula eggs and day 35 larvae from a hatchery. The fatty acid composition of grouper broodstock tissues was also determined. Samples were analysed for crude protein, amino acids, total lipids and fatty acid contents. Muscle contained higher levels of crude protein and amino acids than the ovary and liver. At the early maturing stage, the grouper ovarian protein was 73.3% and lipid was 19.3%, indicating the high dietary requirements of these nutrients for ovarian development. The crude protein and amino acid contents in wild-sourced larvae were higher than that in eggs and larvae from the hatchery.
    • Book chapter

      Analysis of small-scale coastal aquaculture in the Philippines 

      T Matsuura, SV Siar, ND Salayo & DB Baticados - In T Matsuura (Ed.), Comparative Analysis of Aquaculture Management in Brackish Mangrove Areas in Three Southeast Asian Countries, 2007 - Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences
      We studied the influence of the development of aquaculture in the Philippines on the local economy, focusing on coastal fishers in two towns in Capiz and Iloilo, Panay Island, Philippines. Coastal residents in the two towns closely depend on fishing and aquaculture for both their primary and secondary incomes. The small-scale aquaculture business commenced by coastal fishermen has been expanding particularly after the 1990s. The planting of mangrove trees is promoted and small-scale aquafarming is done by coastal fishermen who exert only small environmental loads. Small-scale aquaculture, including the aquaculture of shellfish, net cage culture, pen culture, and seaweed culture, requires low initial investment and imposes minimal workload on operators in terms of breeding management up to shipment, which is why most coastal fishing people want to continue in the business. On the other hand, pond culture, practiced before the 1990s, promises no further rise in production for several reasons that include overproduction of milkfish and the outbreak of diseases in shrimp and prawn. Under these conditions, small-scale aquaculturists in two towns have established a sustainable aquaculture production system that allows them to maintain mangrove forests, utilize natural recirculation functions and help local residents obtain income.
    • Book chapter

      Apparent digestibility of selected feed ingredients in diets for grouper (Epinephelus coioides) juveniles 

      PS Eusebio, RM Coloso & REP Mamauag - In MA Rimmer, S McBride & KC Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture, 2004 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
      Series: ACIAR Monograph 110
      This study was conducted to determine the quality of selected feed ingredients as protein sources in grouper diets, based on their nutrient composition and apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter (ADMD) and crude protein (APD). A total of 56 juveniles were used for the 1st batch of test ingredients (Chilean fish meal, white fish meal, shrimp meal, defatted soyabean oilmeal, white cowpea meal and ipil-ipil leaf meal). 54, 72 and 48 juveniles were used for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th batches of test ingredients (squid meal, local meat and bone meal, meat solubles, soya protein concentrates and rice bran; tuna fish meal, imported meat and bone meal, blood meal, maize gluten meal and wheat flour; and poultry feather meal, lupin seed meal and maize germ meal, respectively). Apparent digestibility coefficients were measured in vivo. The apparent digestibility coefficients for ADMD ranged from 37-99%. Squid meal and meat solubles had the highest coefficients, whereas blood meal had the lowest. The APD of all feed ingredients tested were relatively high (79-99%), except for rice bran (43%) and blood meal (15%). ADMD values varied with the levels of fibre and other carbohydrate substances in the feed ingredients. Groupers could utilize dietary protein efficiently regardless of whether it was of animal or plant origin. High APD values were generally obtained in feed ingredients with high protein content. Low digestibility coefficients for feed ingredients could also be attributed to the processing methods used in their preparation.
    • Book chapter

      Aquaculture 

      N Kautsky, C Folke, P Ronnback, M Troell, M Beveridge & JH Primavera - In Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, 2001 - Elsevier
      Aquaculture, the aquatic counterpart of agriculture, has grown rapidly in recent decades to become one of the most important means of obtaining food from the sea. Impacts of aquaculture on biodiversity arise from the consumption of resources, such as land (or space), water, seed, and feed, their transformation into products valued by society, and the subsequent release into the environment of wastes from uneaten food, fecal and urinary products, and chemtherapeutants as well as microorganisms, parasites, and feral animals. Negative effects may be direct, through release of eutrophicating substances, toxic chemicals, the transfer of diseases and parasites to wild stock, and the introduction of exotic and genetic material into the environment, or indirect through loss of habitat and niche space and changes in food webs. Today, large quantities of fish are caught to produce fish meal–the main ingredient in feed–which may result in overfishing and affect marine food chains, including marine mammals and top carnivores. In some types of aquaculture, fish and shrimp larvae are caught in the wild to be used as seed. This may also result in bycatches of large amounts of other larvae, representing losses to capture fisheries and biodiversity. Large areas of critical habitats such as wetlands and mangroves have been lost due to aquaculture siting and pollution, resulting in lowered biodiversity and recruitment to capture fisheries. The magnitude of biodiversity loss generally increases with scale, intensity of resource use, and net production of wastes, but it is very much dependent on which species is cultured and the method of cultivation. In some cases aquaculture may increase local biodiversity, e.g., when ponds are constructed in dry areas and with integrated aquaculture.
    • Book chapter

      Aquaculture 

      M Troell, N Kautsky, M Beveridge, P Henriksson, J Primavera, P Rönnbäck & C Folke - In SA Levin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, 2013 - Academic Press
      Biophysical impacts of aquaculture, with consequences for biodiversity, vary with species and culture systems and include issues such as: nutrient enrichment/removal, chemicals, land use, species introductions, genetic flow to wild populations, disturbance of balance or introduction of pathogen/parasites, consumption of capture fishery resources, energy, and greenhouse gas emissions. Guiding principles, labeling schemes and various tools are needed to analyze performance and conformance. Ecological footprints and life-cycle analysis aim to capture biophysical performance, including up- and downstream effects of policy decisions. Aquaculture provides a range of services but also makes demands and impacts on ecosystem functions, services, and thus biodiversity.
    • Book chapter

      Aquaculture economics in Asia and the Pacific: A regional assessment. 

      RF Agbayani, ET Belleza & EC Agbayani - In Aquaculture economics in developing countries: regional assessments and an annotated bibliography, 1997 - Rome: FAO
      A broad overview is given of research and information on aquaculture economics in Asia and the Pacific. Following a description of the general state of aquaculture in the region, an examination is made of the available research and information on the various aquaculture systems: inland/freshwater aquaculture; brackishwater /coastal aquaculture; and, marine aquaculture/sea farming. Studies on post-harvest handling, processing, transportation and marketing, and market analysis and development are discussed. Environmental issues and concerns, social equity and women's issues, community-based coastal resources management, technology transfer and macro-economic policies and institutional structures are also analysed. Aquaculture economics research is also assessed, highlighting thrusts, priorities, constraints and needs.
    • Book chapter

      Arachidonic acid distribution in seaweed, seagrass, invertebrates and dugong in coral reef areas in the Philippines 

      A Suloma, HY Ogata, H Furuita, ES Garibay & DR Chavez - In K Nakamura (Ed.), Sustainable Production Systems of Aquatic Animals in Brackish Mangrove Areas, 2007 - Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences
      Arachidonic acid (ArA) was not a minor component, and ArA distributes widely in coral reef organisms. Seagrass had high linoleic acid and linolenic acid levels with low Ara, EPA and DHA levels, while some species of seaweed had intermediate or high ArA levels (5% to 12%). In starfish, sea cucumber and some species of corals, ArA was the first major fatty acid (20% to 30%), but DHA levels were very low. Bivalves, abalone and shrimps had intermediate ArA levels. Total lipids of abdominal muscle and liver of dugong had respectively ArA levels of 7.8% and 11.0%, which were higher than EPA levels (2.4% and 1.6%), but DHA levels (0.4% and 2.3%) were low. It is clear that ArA is a major fatty acid in coral reef animals. The present results suggest that the existence of an ArA-rich food chain may be widespread in coral reef areas, and that the widespread existence of ArA-rich food chain may lead to intermediate or high ArA contents in tropical species.
    • Book chapter

      Arachidonic acid is a major fatty acid in gonads of coral reef fishes and improves larval survival of rabbitfish Sigunus gutattus 

      A Suloma, DR Chavez, ES Garibay, H Furuita & HY Ogata - In SL Ortiz (Ed.), Coral reefs : ecosystems, environmental impact, and current threats, 2016 - Nova Science Publishers
      The supply of wild fry of coral reef fishes for aquaculture has resulted in the deterioration of their natural stock status, causing public concern. Through a series of studies on the establishment of artificial-fry production technologies for coral reef fishes, we found that ovary, testis, eggs and fry of coral reef fishes have high or intermediate levels of arachidonic acid (ArA), which is a relatively minor component in temperate and cold-water species. In gonadal polar lipids of selected coral reef, in particular demersal fishes (19 species), ArA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels ranged from 6.0% to 19.4%, from 0.9% to 6.2%, and from 7.9% to 27.8%, respectively. It is notable that the major highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) of polar lipids in all coral reef fish gonads are DHA and ArA (not EPA) in a ratio of about 2:1. This result allowed us to speculate that not only DHA but also ArA may be nutritionally much important for egg development and larval growth in coral reef fishes.

      Thus, feeding trials were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ArA supplementation on reproductive performance of coral reef rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) broodstock. The number of spawning and the number of hatched larvae tended to be better in broodstock fed diets with ArA than in those fed a diet without ArA. Next, larval rearing tests were conducted to investigate survival and growth in rabbitfish fry fed live rotifers which had been enriched with or without ArA. Fry fed the rotifers enriched with a combination of DHA Protein Selco (Inve Aquaculture, Baasrode, Belgium) + 5% ArA (VEVODAR CRUDE ARACHIDONIC OIL, DSM Food Specialties, Delft, the Netherlands) showed significantly the best survival (44.4 ± 4.5% for Day 17 fry), although growth was not different among treatments. The present study indicates that ArA is not a minor component in coral reef fishes, and that dietary ArA is very promising for the improvement of fry production technologies of the coral reef fishes.
    • Book chapter

      Assessment of the seaweeds industry 

      A Hurtado-Ponce - In DOST-UNDP Project: Achieving International Competitiveness through Technology Development and Transfer. Assessment Reports, Module I: Export Winners, 1995 - Department of Science and Technology and United Nations Development Programme
    • Book chapter

      Basis for a blue revolution? 

      QF Miravite - In D Spurgeon (Ed.), Give us the Tools: Science and Technology for Development, 1979 - International Development Research Centre
      In 1977, scientists at the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Centre (SEAFDEC) in the Philippines became the first anywhere to succeed in breeding milkfish (Chanos chanos) in captivity. The advance was made possible by an IDRC grant, approved in 1974, for a three-year project of research in the breeding and rearing of this important source of protein. The initial grant, for $826,000, was renewed for another three years in December 1978 in the amount of $421,100.
    • Book chapter

      Biology and ecology 

      NB Solis - In Biology and culture of Penaeus monodon, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      A review is made of current information on Penaeus monodon covering various aspects, including taxonomy, morphology, distribution, bionomics and life history. Reproduction, embryonic development, larval stages, spawning, food and feeding, and physiology are described and applications of such information to culture of the species are considered.
    • Book chapter

      Business planning and management for sustainable small-scale rural aquaculture venture 

      RF Agbayani - In Handbook for Regional Training on Community-Based Aquaculture for Remote Rural Areas of Southeast Asia, 2008 - Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Book chapter

      Changes in the gastrointestinal tract and associated organs during early development of the grouper (Epinephelus coioides) 

      GF Quinitio, AC Sa-an, JD Toledo & JD Tan-Fermin - In MA Rimmer, S McBride & KC Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture, 2004 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
      Series: ACIAR Monograph 110
      The histomorphological changes in the gastrointestinal tract of Epinephelus coioides and associated organs during its early development were studied. Larvae of E. coioides were reared in 5-tonne tanks using the semi-intensive culture system. Larval samples were collected at days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 60. The total length (TL) of about 10-20 larvae per sampling was measured. At least 3 samples were examined from each stage for longitudinal sections using light microscopy. The digestive tract of day 0 larvae was a straight, undifferentiated tube composed of simple cuboidal cells. At day 2, cellular differentiation was observed in the pharynx, oesophagus, primordial stomach and intestine. The primordial stomach broadened into a voluminous pouch at day 10. The gastric gland was observed in the stomach from day 20. Day 35 seemed to be the proper time to feed larvae with minced fish when using the semi-intensive rearing system. Insignificant histomorphological changes in the metamorphosing grouper larvae were observed from days 40-60.
    • Book chapter

      Co-culture trials of sandfish Holothuria scabra and black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in mangroves 

      MJH Lebata-Ramos, EFD Solis, RC Sibonga & S Watanabe - In K Tanaka, S Morioka & S Watanabe (Eds.), Sustainable stock management and development of aquaculture technology suitable for Southeast Asia, 2012 - Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences
      Series: JIRCAS Working Report; No. 75
      To address its mandate to develop environment-friendly culture techniques, the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC/AQD) is trying to establish a culture system in mangroves for commercially important aquaculture species. Recently, SEAFDEC/AQD has successfully produced sandfish, Holothuria scabra, in the hatchery. Using hatchery-bred juveniles, monoculture and co-culture trials are being conducted in ponds, pens and cages. This study investigated the feasibility of the co-culture of black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and H. scabra in the mangroves by comparing growth and survival in monoculture and co-culture conditions. Water and sediment quality were compared between treatments. Results showed that growth and survival of P. monodon (P. monodon only = 48.8±4.9%; P. monodon + H. scabra = 46.1±7.4%) and H. scabra (H. scabra only = 13.1±6.1%; P. monodon + H. scabra = 12.3±6.2%) grown together or separately did not significantly differ. P. monodon survivial was positively correlated while growth negatiely correlated with temperature. Feed input significantly increased sulfide levels in both treatments (P. monodon; P. monodon + H. scabra) and sulfide significantly differed between treatments with the highest concentration in P. monodon only, then P. monodon + H. scabra and H. scabra only. Ammonia concentrations followed the same trend as sulfide but did not significantly differ among treatments. P. monodon cultured in mangroves were not affected by the white spot syndrome virus which affected neighboring culture ponds. Results of these initial trials may not be conclusive yet but show a promising culture system for P. monodon that may be integrated with the mangroves.
    • Book chapter

      Community-based aquaculture and resource management: concepts and approaches 

      RF Agbayani - In Handbook for Regional Training on Community-Based Aquaculture for Remote Rural Areas of Southeast Asia, 2008 - Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Book chapter

      Development of farming schemes following disease occurrences in monodon shrimp farming using intensive method in three Southeast Asian countries 

      T Matsuura, LD de la Peña, CP Ean, R Siow & AH Alias - In T Matsuura (Ed.), Comparative Analysis of Aquaculture Management in Brackish Mangrove Areas in Three Southeast Asian Countries, 2007 - Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences
      Series: JIRCAS Working Report; No. 56
      All three countries experienced major progress in intensive shrimp farming at different ties. Intensive farming of monodon shrimp (Penaeus monodon, an indigenous species) was first launched by the Philippines, followed by Thailand, then by Peninsular Malaysia. The survey was conducted from 2000-2005. The disease-causing bacterial that seiously damaged monodon culture were luminous bacteria in the Philippines and white spot virus in Thailand and Malaysia. Production decreased because of these diseases in the mid-1990s in the Philippines and after 2000 in Thailand and Malaysia. In 1998, the Green Water System (hereinafter referred to as GWS) was developed, and a proportion of culture ponds introduced it and resumed monodon culture using the intensive method. In Thailand, the vannamei shrimp (Penaeus vannamei, an exotic species from South America) has now replaced monodon previously raised using the extensive method. In Malaysia, monodon is cultured using only the intensive method, and some culture pond enterprises started to culture vannamei instead of monodon in 2004. In the Philippines, companies engaging in monodon culture have many ponds and lower stocking density because they culture large-size shrimp, but are exposed to high running costs such as fuels and probiotics. On the other hand, in Thailand, individuals engaging in monodon culture have few ponds and higher stocking density since they culture small-scale shrimp. Labor costs are low because most of the work is done by family member.
    • Book chapter

      Development of formulated feeds for grow-out culture of grouper (Epinephelus coioides) - tank and field studies 

      OM Millamena & JD Toledo - In MA Rimmer, S McBride & KC Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture, 2004 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
      Series: ACIAR Monograph 110
      The objectives of this study were to compare the performance of a Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Centre (SEAFDEC) formulated diet with a commercial feed for growout culture of grouper and to transfer technology on grouper diet developed at SEAFDEC to the industry. In the tank study, Epinephelus coioides juveniles were reared in 12 units of 150-litre tanks at 15 fish/tank with 4 replicates per treatment. Fish were fed the diets at a feeding rate of 5-6% of body weight (BW) and trash fish at 10-12% BW per day for 60 days. In the feeding trial, treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with size groups as block. 36 fish were stocked per size group. Formulated feeds were given twice a day for 120 days. In the tank study, the commercial feed resulted to significantly lower growth, survival and food conversion ratio (FCR) compared with the SEAFDEC diet and trash fish control. Results of the field trials at growout ponds did not show significant differences in growth performance, survival and FCR of grouper juveniles fed with the diets. Both the SEAFDEC diet and commercial feed conformed to the established protein requirement of juvenile grouper. In tank trials, the poor performance of commercial feed was attributed to the low protein content and deficiencies in essential amino acids as confirmed by analysis of the amino acid composition. Improvement in growth performance of fish given the commercial feed was achieved in field trials by increasing the dietary protein level and improving the amino acid composition to match that of the grouper juveniles.
    • Book chapter

      Development of transgenic fish: scientific background 

      YK Nam, N Maclean, C Fu, TJ Pandian & MRR Eguia - In AR Kapuscinski, KR Hayes, S Li, G Dana, EM Hallerman & PJ Schei (Eds.), Environmental risk assessment of genetically modified organisms, Volume 3. Methodologies for transgenic fish, 2007 - CABI
      This chapter highlights some of the important examples of transgenic fish development. An overview of important steps in fish transgenesis is given. The status of development in the case of transgenic carp, tilapias, Atlantic salmon and mud loach is discussed. Other future applications of transgenic fish are presented. The key research and capacity needs for further development of transgenic fish are also discussed.
    • Book chapter

      Digestive enzyme activity in developing grouper (Epinephelus coioides) larvae 

      PS Eusebio, JD Toledo, REP Mamauag & MJG Bernas - In MA Rimmer, S McBride & KC Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture, 2004 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
      Series: ACIAR Monograph 110
      This study was undertaken to determine the activities of alkaline and acid type proteases [proteinases], α-amylase, lipase [triacylglycerol lipase], trypsin, chymotrypsin, leucine aminopeptidase [cytosol aminopeptidase], and alkaline and acid phosphatases during larval development of the grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The maximum variation in specific activities of alkaline and acid type proteases, α-amylase, lipase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, leucine aminopeptidase, and acid and alkaline phosphatases in the digestive tract of grouper larvae was mostly related to the onset or the end of metamorphosis during larval development.