Recent Submissions

  • Book chapter

    Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and infection reduction in farmed aquatic animals 

    JLQ Laranja & P Bossier - In H Goldfine (Ed.), Health Consequences of Microbial Interactions with Hydrocarbons, Oils, and Lipids, 2019 - Springer International Publishing
    There is a continuous effort in finding effective and sustainable strategies to control diseases in farmed animals, and in recent years, the application of the bacterial storage compound poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) was identified as a new disease control agent for aquaculture. The idea of using PHB as a biocontrol agent was conceived based on the knowledge that this biopolymer can be degraded into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and SCFAs are known compounds with antimicrobial properties. At the beginning of this chapter, an overview about the PHB granule, its detection, quantification, production, and recovery in microorganisms is presented. The main topic focuses on the application and beneficial effects of PHB in farmed aquatic animals. The mechanisms by which PHB provides beneficial effects to the host are discussed.
  • Book chapter

    Luminous Vibrio and the greenwater culture of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon with tilapia 

    GD Lio-Po - In PW Perschbacher & RR Stickney (Eds.), Tilapia in Intensive Co-culture, 2017 - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
    Luminous vibriosis is a devastating infection of penaeid shrimp larvae and juveniles causing heavy mortalities. To counter the bacterial pathogen, Vibrio harveyi, shrimp farmers in the Philippines modified their growout culture method of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, juveniles and developed the greenwater culture technique. This culture method involves the use of pond water of all-male, saline-tolerant Oreochromis hornorum as rearing water for the culture of shrimp juveniles in ponds. Such a modified culture of P. monodon juveniles was found effective in preventing the onset of luminous vibriosis. Basic studies revealed that antiluminous Vibrio factors are inherent in the bacterial, fungal, and microalgal flora of the tilapia water, dermal mucus, and gut that singly or collectively inhibit the growth of V. harveyi, in vitro. The skin mucus studies of other brackishwater fish species showed that the siganids, Siganus guttatus, and red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis mossambicus), as well as sea bass, Lates calcarifer, are promising alternative fish species for this novel shrimp culture method. A review of pond-simulated studies in tanks and ponds, similarly, confirmed these findings and the impact of the greenwater culture technique on water quality, including its economic benefits to the farmer. The greenwater culture of shrimp can sustain the successful production of shrimp juveniles by inhibition of the luminous Vibrio. This culture method is also currently used in the growout culture of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.
  • Book chapter

    Micro-propagation of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma: Trends and prospects 

    CRK Reddy, NS Yokoya, WTL Yong, MRJ Luhan & AQ Hurtado - In AQ Hurtado, AT Critchley & IC Neish (Eds.), Tropical Seaweed Farming Trends, Problems and Opportunities, 2017 - Springer International Publishing
    Among the red algae, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma are the two most commercially important carrageenophytes farmed extensively in Southeast Asian countries; they rank top in production in terms of volume of raw material produced. The farming of carrageenophytes has emerged as a successful enterprise and provides a promising, alternative livelihood option for low-income, coastal communities in a number of countries. In 2014, carrageenophyte production worldwide, surpassed other red seaweeds and was placed at the top of the production rankings with 10.99 million MT wet weight (77% of total production of farmed red seaweed) and Indonesia being a major producer. However, over time, the productivity of the crop (carrageenophytes) has declined in some regions due to sourcing of seedlings from single, selected genetic stocks considered to have higher yield potential which resulted in strain fatigue, or loss of vigour. The incidences of disease and epiphytic infestations are on rise in recent times which have severely affected biomass production, as well as the yield and product quality (carrageenan). In order to circumvent the crop productivity issues arising from clonal propagation, the raising of planting materials from spores, derived through the red algal sexual reproductive cycle, has been initiated to support the sustainability of selected, farmed carrageenophytes. Alternatively, in vitro tissue culture techniques have also been explored to not only rejuvenate the vigour of seedlings (i.e. the out-planting material) but also to seek seedlings resilient to stress, disease and epiphytes to act as an invigorated mother stock. These efforts have succeeded to a great extent in the development of appropriate techniques for explant culture, callus induction, callus sub-culture and regeneration to micro-propagules with improved traits. The present chapter briefly summarizes the developments and success achieved in micro-propagation of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma and also provides pointers to both gaps and priority areas for future research required for the advancement of sustainable farming of these carrageenophytes.
  • Book chapter

    Sustainable milkfish production in marine fish cages through strong government support and effective public-private partnerships: a case study from Panabo City Mariculture Park in Davao del Norte, Philippines 

    FG Ayson, AM Ventura & EG de Jesus-Ayson - In W Miao & KK Lal (Eds.), Sustainable intensification of aquaculture in the Asia-Pacific region. Documentation of successful practices, 2016 - FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
    This case study presents the successful practice of sustainable intensification of milkfish aquaculture in marine fish cages under semi-intensive grow-out conditions in the Panabo City Mariculture Park (PCMP) in Davao del Norte, Philippines. Established in 2006, PCMP became operational through the promulgation of a City Ordinance declaring 1 075 hectares of municipal waters in Panabo City as a Mariculture Development Zone/Park. The operations of PCMP were so successful that in just five years it became the third largest among the 63 operational MPs in the Philippines during 2011, with 86 private investors-locators operating a total of 322 units of cages. At present, a total of 372 units of fish cages are operating in the mariculture park (MP). A combination of factors contributed to the successful operation of PCMP, but the success is usually attributed to the effective partnership between the government (both local and national) and the private sector. The Comprehensive MP City Ordinance that governs the PCMP is strictly implemented and includes, among others, the tenurial rights and access to locators. Regulations on distances between cages are strictly enforced and security measures in the total area are jointly undertaken by the government and the locators. The national government, through the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources-National Mariculture Center (BFAR-NMC), provides technical support in all aspects from stocking to harvest during the production cycle. BFAR-NMC staff conduct regular periodic sampling of the stocks and compute feeding rates for the stocks which are implemented by the technicians/caretakers. Likewise, BFAR-NMC staff regularly monitor the water quality of the MP and the health status of the stocks. Since it became operational in 2006, the PCMP did not report a single incident of mass fish kill, which indicates that the technical guidelines of MP operations are strictly followed. Workers are trained and organized into groups by BFAR-NMC such as caretakers, cage framers, netters, harvesters, fish processors, and others, and actively participate in discussions related to MP operations to ensure protocols are properly followed. Harvests of stocks are done by skilled workers trained by BFAR-NMC, all done in the “Bagsakan Center” or fish landing area and are well-coordinated. The support facilities in the fish landing area are provided by both the local and national government and the PCMP Producers Association. The operators provide complete data for their operations to BFAR-NMC for record keeping. The strong partnership between the national government through BFAR-NMC, the local government unit, the investors, as well as the acceptance and support from the community for the PCMP is the hallmark of its success.
  • Book chapter

    Important diseases of Penaeid shrimps 

    GD Lio-Po & EM Leaño - In IC Liao, NH Chao & EM Leaño (Eds.), Progress of Shrimp and Prawn Aquaculture in the World, 2016 - National Taiwan Ocean University; The Fisheries Society of Taiwan; Asian Fisheries Society; World Aquaculture Society
    In tropical Asia, the two main species of penaeid shrimps that are widely cultured are the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and the Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei). The former species is indigenous in most Asian countries while the latter is indigenous in the Americas and was introduced to Asian countries in the late 1990s. In this chapter, only details of the economically-important microbial infections in Asia in these two penaeid shrimps are presented and arbitrarily grouped as viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic diseases. Viral infections are divided further into two groups: DNA viruses; and, RNA viruses. The infections attributed to DNA viruses are: White Spot Disease (WSD) Disease, Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) previously known as Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV) Disease, Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV) formerly known as Hepatopancreatic Parvo-like Virus (HPV) Disease and Penaeus monodon nucleopoly-hedrovirus (PemoNPV) previously known as Monodon Baculovirus (MBV) Disease. The shrimp infections caused by RNA viruses are: Yellow Head Virus (YHV) Disease, Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) Disease, and Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (IMNV) Disease. For bacterial diseases, the list includes Luminous Bacterial Disease, Non-luminous Vibrio Infections, and Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND). Fungal disease includes Larval mycosis, while parasitic disease includes the current emerging threat to the shrimp industry, the Hepatopancreatic Microsporidiosis caused by Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP).
  • Book

    An overview of agricultural pollution in the Philippines: The fisheries sector 

    MLA Cuvin-Aralar, CH Ricafort & A Salvacion - 2016 - World Bank
    This report is part of a national overview of agricultural pollution in the Philippines, commissioned by the World Bank. The overview consists of three ‘chapters’ on the crops, livestock, and fisheries sub-sectors, and a summary report. This ‘chapter’ provides a broad national overview of: (a) the magnitude, impacts, and drivers of pollution related to the fisheries sector’s development with a focus on aquaculture; (b) measures that have been taken by the public sector to manage or mitigate this pollution; and (c) existing knowledge gaps and directions for future research. This report was prepared on the basis of existing literature, recent analyses, and national and international statistics, as well as extensive interviews. It did not involve new primary research and did not attempt to cover pollution issues that arise in the broader aquaculture value chain, relating for instance to processing, packaging and transportation, feed processing, or veterinary drug factories.
  • Book chapter

    Arachidonic acid is a major fatty acid in gonads of coral reef fishes and improves larval survival of rabbitfish Sigunus gutattus 

    A Suloma, DR Chavez, ES Garibay, H Furuita & HY Ogata - In SL Ortiz (Ed.), Coral reefs : ecosystems, environmental impact, and current threats, 2016 - Nova Science Publishers
    The supply of wild fry of coral reef fishes for aquaculture has resulted in the deterioration of their natural stock status, causing public concern. Through a series of studies on the establishment of artificial-fry production technologies for coral reef fishes, we found that ovary, testis, eggs and fry of coral reef fishes have high or intermediate levels of arachidonic acid (ArA), which is a relatively minor component in temperate and cold-water species. In gonadal polar lipids of selected coral reef, in particular demersal fishes (19 species), ArA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels ranged from 6.0% to 19.4%, from 0.9% to 6.2%, and from 7.9% to 27.8%, respectively. It is notable that the major highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) of polar lipids in all coral reef fish gonads are DHA and ArA (not EPA) in a ratio of about 2:1. This result allowed us to speculate that not only DHA but also ArA may be nutritionally much important for egg development and larval growth in coral reef fishes.

    Thus, feeding trials were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ArA supplementation on reproductive performance of coral reef rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) broodstock. The number of spawning and the number of hatched larvae tended to be better in broodstock fed diets with ArA than in those fed a diet without ArA. Next, larval rearing tests were conducted to investigate survival and growth in rabbitfish fry fed live rotifers which had been enriched with or without ArA. Fry fed the rotifers enriched with a combination of DHA Protein Selco (Inve Aquaculture, Baasrode, Belgium) + 5% ArA (VEVODAR CRUDE ARACHIDONIC OIL, DSM Food Specialties, Delft, the Netherlands) showed significantly the best survival (44.4 ± 4.5% for Day 17 fry), although growth was not different among treatments. The present study indicates that ArA is not a minor component in coral reef fishes, and that dietary ArA is very promising for the improvement of fry production technologies of the coral reef fishes.
  • Book chapter

    Viral diseases of shrimp in the Philippines 

    KGS Andrino-Felarca, EG Estante & CC Lazado - In CMA Caipang, MBI Bacano-Maningas & FF Fagutao (Eds.), Biotechnological Advances in Shrimp Health Management in the Philippines, 2015 - Research Signpost
    Shrimp is a high-value commodity and one of the major aquaculture species in the world, including the Philippines. The shrimp farming industry is dominated by the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and the Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei. Intensification in shrimp aquaculture to meet the global demand resulted to several socio-economic and biophysical production bottlenecks. Consequently, the issues besetting the industry had raised several questions on its sustainability. In particular, viral diseases remain a constant threat and a significant concern in many shrimp producing countries especially in the developing world. In this chapter, current knowledge on major viral pathogens affecting shrimp aquaculture in the Philippines is presented and discussed. The discussion is focused on white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV). yellow head virus (YHV), and taura syndrome virus (TSV). Updates on their clinical signs, transmission and distribution are presented. Records of incidence in the Philippines are provided as well. The second half of the chapter discusses some of the methods how to control viral diseases in shrimp farming with a particular focus on vaccination, biosecurity and diagnostics.
  • Book chapter

    Use of immunostimulants in shrimp culture: An update 

    MJS Apines-Amar & EC Amar - In CMA Caipang, MBI Bacano-Maningas & FF Fagutao (Eds.), Biotechnological Advances in Shrimp Health Management in the Philippines, 2015 - Research Signpost
    Different approaches are used to prevent and control diseases in aquaculture. Immunostimulation is one method that is gaining popularity and is considered a promising development in aquaculture. Immunostimulants were found to be effective in enhancing parameters of non-specific immunity and resistance to diseases of fish and crustaceans. However, some issues raised on the use of immunostimulants pertains to the short-term nature of immune indices used during efficacy evaluation, possible detrimental effects during long-term administration, or self-damage due to unregulated production of immune effectors. Further testing in large-scale production units has been recommended. This chapter presents the various types and sources of immunostimulants commonly used in aquaculture and in shrimp culture in particular. The effects of each immunostimulant vary depending on its source, dose, route of administration, length of exposure, and the species to which it is administered.
  • Book chapter

    Fish behaviour and aquaculture 

    G Kawamura, TU Bagarinao & LL Seng - In S Mustafa & R Shapawi (Eds.), Aquaculture Ecosystems: Adaptability and Sustainability, 2015 - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
    Research in the application of fundamental concepts of fish behaviour to aquaculture has intensified recently and this chapter further elucidates fish sensory systems and functions and their involvement in the success or failure of hatchery and farm operations. Most marine fishes hatch with rudimentary sense organs that are elaborated by the time of first feeding and further improved with growth; thus, hatcheries must have the appropriate food, light and water currents for proper larval development. In grow-out farms, the ambient conditions must be at optimum or tolerable levels for the fish stock and the diets must have the right sensory characteristics to stimulate efficient feeding. Stressors for fish sensory systems include crowding, turbidity, underwater noise, chemotherapeutants, extreme pH, gas supersaturation and infection. High-density farms are stressful because the fish can sense, but cannot escape from, unfavourable conditions. Monitoring fish behaviour provides early warning of stress and disease and helps avert mortality and financial losses in aquaculture.
  • Book

    Philippine Aquatic Wildlife Rescue and Response Manual Series: Marine Turtles 

    This manual addresses the lack of information materials on how to deal with marine turtle encounters in the Philippine seas to ensure that the proper treatment and intervention is provided. The manual also responds to the Comprehensive Action Plan for Threatened, Charismatic, and Migratory Species of the Sulu-Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion (SSME), which has been identified as the first priority seascape the Coral Triangle Initiative (CTI). The Tri-National Committee of the SSME developed the Comprehensive Action Plans (CAP) that identified seven Key Result Areas (KRAs) to improve the status of marine turtles in the SSME, as follows: (a) Identify best practices in minimizing threats to marine turtle populations and their habitats; (b) Develop and implement nesting habitats and management programs to maximize hatchling production and survival; (c) Provide recommendations on specific features or criteria in marine protected area (MPA) design and MPA network design in relation to the protection and management of marine turtles in SSME waters; (d) Undertake initiatives to promote reduction of incidental capture and mortality of marine turtles; (e) Conduct turtle population habitat research and monitoring protocols; (f) Develop guidelines for MPA network design for marine turtles; and (g) Publish information to promote best practices and successes for marine turtle conservation.

    This manual is an important step to address gaps and issues on threatened marine wildlife in the Philippines to better protect and conserve marine biodiversity in the Coral Triangle.
  • Book chapter

    Infectious diseases of warmwater fish in fresh water 

    GD Lio-Po & LHS Lim - In PTK Woo, DW Bruno & LHS Lim (Eds.), Diseases and disorders of finfish in cage culture, 2014 - CABI Publishing
    This chapter presents the viral, bacterial, pseudofungal and parasitic diseases in cultured warm freshwater fish. Focus is given on the distribution, causative agent, pathology, diagnosis, prevention and control of these diseases.
  • Book chapter

    Nursery and grow-out culture of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer, in selected countries in Southeast Asia 

    FG Ayson, K Sugama, R Yashiro & EG de Jesus-Ayson - In DR Jerry (Ed.), Biology and Culture of Asian Seabass Lates Calcarifer, 2014 - CRC Press
    In this chapter, the practices of growing Asian seabass in nursery and grow-out culture systems in selected Southeast Asian countries like the Philippines, Thailand and Indonesia are described.
  • Book chapter

    Early development and seed production of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer 

    EG de Jesus-Ayson, FG Ayson & V Thepot - In DR Jerry (Ed.), Biology and Culture of Asian Seabass Lates Calcarifer, 2014 - CRC Press
    This Chapter outlines the characteristics of L. calcarifer eggs and larvae, the changes during embryonic and larval development, advances in seed production and at the same time highlights the relative ease in its mass production.
  • Book chapter

    Reproductive biology of the Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer 

    EG de Jesus-Ayson & FG Ayson - In DR Jerry (Ed.), Biology and Culture of Asian Seabass Lates Calcarifer, 2014 - CRC Press
  • Book chapter


    M Troell, N Kautsky, M Beveridge, P Henriksson, J Primavera, P Rönnbäck & C Folke - In SA Levin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, 2013 - Academic Press
    Biophysical impacts of aquaculture, with consequences for biodiversity, vary with species and culture systems and include issues such as: nutrient enrichment/removal, chemicals, land use, species introductions, genetic flow to wild populations, disturbance of balance or introduction of pathogen/parasites, consumption of capture fishery resources, energy, and greenhouse gas emissions. Guiding principles, labeling schemes and various tools are needed to analyze performance and conformance. Ecological footprints and life-cycle analysis aim to capture biophysical performance, including up- and downstream effects of policy decisions. Aquaculture provides a range of services but also makes demands and impacts on ecosystem functions, services, and thus biodiversity.
  • Book chapter

    On-farm feed management practices for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the Philippines 

    MRR Romana-Eguia, MA Laron & MR Catacutan - In MR Hasan & MB New (Eds.), On-farm feeding and feed management in aquaculture, 2013 - Food and Agriculture Organization
    Series: FAO fisheries and aquaculture technical paper; No. 583
    The contribution of the Philippines to tilapia production in Asia has increased steadily in the past five years as it addresses hunger and poverty alleviation in the region. Commercial tilapia aquaculture in the Philippines has improved as farmers have become aware of the importance of adopting innovative husbandry technologies. These include the use of intensive culture, using novel feed ingredients, improving the quality of industrial aquafeeds, adopting cost- effective feeding strategies and efficient pond fertilization methods, and culturing improved genetic strains. A case study was conducted to: a) assess current tilapia feed management practices; b) determine recent nutrition-based innovations that include the use of alternative feed ingredients, the adoption of nutritionally complete commercial tilapia feeds, and improvements to feed management practices; and c) evaluate these factors in terms of improved production efficiencies. Thirty-two farmers from selected tilapia cage hatcheries, pond hatcheries, grow- out cages and ponds in Regions III and IV-A (known major tilapia producing regions in the Philippines) were interviewed. The issues addressed included their farm management practices, with particular focus on tilapia feed preferences; quality, procurement and storage methods; and feeding strategies. Their responses were collated and analysed in the context of information simultaneously gathered from the scientific literature, popular publications and relevant websites. The results from the case study highlight the importance of farmers being trained and remaining well-informed about recent improvements in feed technologies and the use of efficient cost-saving feeding strategies to optimize the production of seed and marketable tilapia. Recommendations on how to increase tilapia production through improved feed and feed management practices are described. Finally, recommendations for local regulatory agencies to implement aquafeed quality and nutrient standards are provided.
  • Book chapter

    Market and fisheries development issues in coastal resources management 

    ND Salayo - In IML Siason (Ed.), Coastal resource management: Perspectives from the social sciences, 2013 - Department of Agriculture - Bureau of Agricultural Research
    This chapter suggests that the market, as an economic and social institution, has important roles and a multitude of opportunities to contribute to the strategies for managing the crisis, in fisheries. The crisis apparently was an outcome of the complex interplay of variables such as increasing fishing pressure, depleting fish stocks, low income among small-scale fishers, social inequity in the fishery sector and inadequate management of the fishery and related resources.
  • Book chapter

    The relationship between nutritional stress and digestive enzyme activities in sea cucumber Holothuria scabra 

    J Zarate, K Niwa & S Watanabe - In K Tanaka, S Morioka & S Watanabe (Eds.), Sustainable stock management and development of aquaculture technology suitable for Southeast Asia, 2012 - Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences
    Series: JIRCAS Working Report; No. 75
    The sea cucumber Holothuria scabra (sandfish) was studied to determine what digestive enzymes are present, to perform a basic characterization of their activity, and to attempt to correlate enzyme activity with nutritional status of the animal. Enzymes alpha amylase, protease (as well as chymotrypsin), cellulase, mannanase, agarase, and xylanase were detected. The enzymes trypsin, alginate lyase and laminarinase were also tested for, but the presence of trypsin was inconclusive, and no alginate lyase or laminarinase was detected. The pH optimum of protease was pH 5 and that of alpha amylase pH 7. Alpha amylase, protease, chymotrypsin, cellulase and mannanase continued to digest their substrates over time. A 2-week starvation experiment showed changes in alpha amylase and protease levels. No differences in cellulase, mannanase, agarose or xylanase activity were detected as a result of the starvation experiment. Another starvation experiment wherein sandfish intestines were sampled every 3 days for 15 days showed that only alpha amylase levels changed with starvation. All samples had lower alpha amylase activity after the withdrawal of feed compared to the day 0 samples. These results suggest the possibility of the use of alpha amylase activity as an indicator of nutritional status, particularly feed deprivation, in sandfish.
  • Book chapter

    Utilization of organic waste from black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, by sandfish, Holothuria scabra 

    S Watanabe, JM Zarate, MJH Lebata-Ramos, MFJ Nievales & M Kodama - In K Tanaka, S Morioka & S Watanabe (Eds.), Sustainable stock management and development of aquaculture technology suitable for Southeast Asia, 2012 - Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences
    Series: JIRCAS Working Report; No. 75
    In Southeast Asian countries, a large proportion of shrimp aquaculture has switched its target species from native black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, to exotic P. vannamei because of frequent viral disease outbreaks. One of the causes of disease outbreaks is thought to be poor water and sediment conditions in the shrimp pond, which aggravate disease symptoms. To establish co-culture methods of black tiger shrimp and sandfish, Holothuria scabra, for possible mitigation of shrimp pond eutrophication and prevention of disease outbreaks, laboratory experiments were conducted at the Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD) in Iloilo, Philippines. A feeding trial of juvenile H. scabra using benthic diatom, Navicula ramossisima, and powdered P. monodon feed showed that H. scabra do not grow with fresh shrimp feed on a hard substrate. A feeding trial with and without sand substrate with shrimp feed as food showed that the substrates enhance the growth of H. scabra. H. scabra juveniles were found to grow with detritus and P. monodon feces as food sources in tanks. It was also shown that addition of ground oyster shell to the sand substrate enhances the growth of H. scabra when fed with N. ramossisima. Thus, these results suggest that H. scabra can grow by feeding on organic matter present in a P. monodon pond and may be used to mitigate organic load in P. monodon ponds.

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