Management of fish health in broodstock and larvae of milkfish, sea bass and grouper
Historically, reports on the occurrence of disease problems in milkfish, seabass and grouper were mainly on the isolation and identification of etiological agents. Studies on the tolereance of fish to chemotherapeutants were also conducted. Various species of vibrios and gill-infesting parasites have been associated with diseases in all life stages of these fish. Presently, mortalities due to diseases of unknown etiology, environmental failure and nutritional or husbandry shortfalls affect successful fry production in the hatchery. Morphological deformities in hatchery-produced milkfish fry is a major problem to be solved. In seabass fry production, swim-bladder stress syndrome occasionally occurs and results in mass mortalities. In larval grouper culture, the problem of low survival is being addressed through improved husbandry and nutrition. For cage-held broodstock that naturally spawn in captivity, such as milkfish and grouper, the main problem is fouling of net enclosures in the cages. However, for fish that need hormonal manipulation to spawn, such as seabass and snapper, stressful handling procedures during sampling and hormone injection may lead to injuries and scale loss. The damaged areas become focal points for secondary bacterial infection. Future fish health management strategies in these fish should incorporate a holistic approach to include environmental monitoring, nutritional manipulation, immunostimulants and vaccine use, and biological control in addition to pathogen exclusion in the rearing system and the fish.
Emata, A. C., Lavilla-Pitogo, C. R., Duray, M. N., & Toledo, J. D. (1996). Management of fish health in broodstock and larvae of milkfish, sea bass and grouper. In K. L. Main & C. Rosenfeld (Eds.), Aquaculture health management strategies for marine fishes?: proceedings of a workshop in Honolulu, Hawaii, October 9- 13, 1995 (pp. 47-56). Walmanalo, Hawaii: The Oceanic Institute.
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Emata, Arnil C. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 1995)Most of the fish research at SEAFDEC AQD in 1992-1994 was on milkfish. Studies were conducted on year-round spawning through hormonal or environmental manipulation; optimum lipid and protein levels and ration size for ...
Digestibility and effective level of meat and bone meal in formulated diet for milkfish, Chanos chanos Forsskal, grown in fresh and seawater Catacutan, Mae R.; Pagador, Gregoria; Maceren-Pates, Mercedes D. (Masyarakat Akuakultur Indonesia (MAI), 2015)The efficient level of MBM for good growth and survival of milkfish, Chanos chanos Forsskal, without histological changes in tissues (liver, intestine, muscle, kidney and brain) was determined in both freshwater (FW) and ...
Notes on the pigmentation pattern in the larval developmental stages of laboratory-reared milkfish Buri, P. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 1978)Milkfish fry were artificially bred and reared in the laboratory and the pigmentation pattern of the different developmental stages of the larvae are described in detail, with illustrations.