Protein and dry matter digestibility of feedstuffs in complete diets for Penaeus monodon
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The digestibilities of animal and plant protein sources were determined for P. monodon (30 ~ 40 g wet weight). Protein sources were incorporated in complete diets containing the indicator, chromic oxide at 1.8%. Casein, (APDC=97.9%) was highly digested. The APDC values of shrimp meal (Acetes sp.) and squid meal were 95.4% and 96.0%, respectively. These values did not differ from those for plant protein sources such as soybean meal (93.4%), yeast (93.0%) and wheat germ meal (91.9%). Fish meal (60.75%), meat and bone meal (73.8%) and copra meal (75.2%) had significantly lower APDC values while shrimp head meal and testis meal were digested at 89%~90%. Assimilation (U1) of dietary organic matter by the ash-free method ranged from 58.3%~90.19%. The TPDC of feedstuffs were generally higher by about 5% than the APDC. A highly positive correlation was observed between APDC and ADMDC (r=90). Protein content of all diets which ranged from 12.9%~60.18% showed no correlation with APDC, TPDC, ADMDC and U1. This study showed that the shrimp has the capability to similarly digest plant and animal protein sources.
Catacutan, M. R. (1997). Protein and dry matter digestibility of feedstuffs in complete diets for Penaeus monodon. In Y. Zhou, H. Zhou, C. Yao, Y. Lu, F. Hu, H. Cui, & F. Din (Eds.), The Fourth Asian Fisheries Forum: Proceedings of the Fourth Asian Fisheries Forum, Beijing, 16-20 October 1995 (pp. 490–494). Makati City, Philippines: Asian Fisheries Society.
PublisherAsian Fisheries Society
- Conference Proceedings 
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Book chapterVR Alava - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis chapter teaches the reader to: differentiate the different feeding strategies in pond culture; learn feeding management methods such as stock sampling and record keeping, calculating daily feed ration, choosing appropriate feed size, and methods of applying feeds; understand the impact of feeding management on water quality and environment and on the cultured animal’s growth, survival, and feed conversion ratio; and describe the different feeding schemes used to culture fishes (milkfish, tilapia, rabbitfish, bighead carp, native catfish, sea bass, orange-spotted grouper, and mangrove red snapper; and crustaceans (tiger shrimp and mud crab). Other species for aquaculture stock enhancement (donkey’s ear abalone, seahorses, window-pane oyster) are also discussed.
Conference paperB Sirikul, S Luanprida, K Chaiyakam & R Sriprasert - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture practised in Thailand is in the form of pond culture and cage culture in freshwater, brackishwater and coastal areas. The main species cultured include freshwater prawns, brackishwater shrimp, cockles, mussels, and various freshwater and marine finfishes. There is good potential for increased production from freshwater, brackishwater and marine aquaculture. However, the 1983 production of 145 000 mt represents only about 6% of Thailand's total fish production and production in this subsector has fluctuated widely. It will be several years before aquaculture production will contribute substantially to total production. Nonetheless, the culture of high value species of shrimp and fish could contribute significantly to export earnings during the next 5 to 10 years. Conducted primarily by government agencies, research and development are along the lines of increasing seed supply, establishing new culture techniques or improving older ones. The Department of Fisheries (DOF) together with some private companies have ventured into the development and testing of artificial diets for the various cultured species using a variety of indigenous feed stuffs. It is estimated that with adequate investments and appropriate support, aquaculture production will increase from 145 000 mt in 1983 to 378 000 mt in 1991, showing an annual increase of about 13% over this period. Major increases would come from bivalve mariculture (131 000 mt), brackishwater ponds (36 000 mt) freshwater ponds (46 000 mt) and brackishwater cage culture (20 000 mt).
Conference paperMR Catacutan - In MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation … Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterCultured marine aquatic species are predominantly carnivorous. Major species in the region are seabass, grouper, snapper, tiger shrimp, mangrove crab and abalone. These species, except for abalone, require a high level of dietary protein mostly supplied by marine sources such as fish meal. Global production of marine fish and marine shrimps showed a 3-4 fold increase from 1995 to 2010. For the same period, the usage of commercial feed for production of marine fish and shrimps increased while the fish meal portion in the formulation decreased. This is indicative of fish meal being substituted with alternative sources in commercial feed production, and to some extent the substitution of marine oil which particularly improved the FCR for the marine fish production from 2.0 to 1.9 and for marine shrimps from 2.0 to 1.6. Plant products that include cereal grains, legumes and oilseeds have the most potential among the alternative ingredients for use in aquafeed. The use of these resources for high value marine species is limited due to a variety of anti-nutritional substances they contain. Removal of these substances by processing techniques has improved utilization but with added cost. Hence, fish meal is still the primary source of protein for marine carnivores and its substitution with higher amounts of alternative plant proteins may be difficult compared with lower levels of replacements. The Asian region has accounted for the more than 50% of the total global aquaculture production in 2012 with indications of increased utilization of alternative protein sources in commercial feed production. For the major marine species in the region the increasing trend of plant protein usage with the targeted levels of substitution of fish meal with plant protein sources should be sustainable.