Aqua-mangrove integrated farming: shrimp and mud crab culture in coastal and inland tidal flats with existing reforested or natural growth of mangroves
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Throughout the tropics, mangroves are being destroyed at an increasing rate for the development of aquaculture ponds. In the Philippines, for instance, mangroves were about 400,000 to 500,000 ha in 1918 but were reduced to 100,564 ha in 1987. On the average, about 3,500 ha of mangroves are lost every year in the country to accommodate the aquaculture industry (Baconguis et al., 1990). Loss of mangroves means loss of habitat, fishery, income, and livelihood for many coastal inhabitants. The annual catches of major fishing grounds in the Philippines were positively correlated with the areas of existing mangroves (Bagarinao, 1998). Restoration programs of the government such as mangrove reforestation and afforestation were attempted but could not catch up with the unending destruction. An alternative source of income which is directly supportive of resource management was therefore proposed to mitigate ecosystem degradation with the fisher communities in mind. Fishing villages in the Philippines are generally located in the fringes of arable land along coastal plains and are dependent on fishing as a source of income. The common denominator of these villages is the presence of large areas of tidal flats with existing mangroves. To utilize the aquaculture potential of these mangroves, aqua-mangrove integrated farming development projects were introduced to provide alternative livelihood for the fishers in the village. This integrated approach to conservation and utilization of mangrove resource allows for maintaining a relatively high level of integrity in the mangrove area while capitalizing on the economic benefits of brackishwater aquaculture. The projects took off from the concept of co-management, that is, taking into account the partnership between the local community, the local government unit, and the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC/AQD) in the management of the project.
In: Tadokoro, Y., Sulit, V.T., Abastillas, R.B. Technologies in Mangrove-Friendly Aquaculture. Final Report of and Papers Presented to the On-Site Training on Mangrove-Friendly Aquaculture, 19-30 April 1999. Hai Phong City, Socialists Republic of Vietnam. Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department. pp. 157-188
Crustacea; Shrimp culture; Mud crab culture; Mangrove; Aquasilviculture; Site selection; Cages -- Design and construction; Cage culture; Transportation; Stocking organisms; Acclimation; Feed; Feeding; Economic analysis; Polyculture; Crab fattening; Crabs; Mud crab; Milkfish; Shrimps; Giant tiger shrimp; Scylla serrata; Scylla tranquebarica; Scylla olivacea; Chanos chanos; Penaeus monodon
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Mud crab pen culture: replacement of fish feed requirement and impacts on mangrove community structure. JH Primavera, JB Binas, GPB Samonte-Tan, MJJ Lebata, VR Alava, M Walton & L LeVay -
Aquaculture Research, 2010 - Blackwell PublishingBrackishwater pond culture has been a major factor in mangrove loss in Southeast Asia, hence, the need to develop environment-friendly technologies such as mud crab Scylla (Portunidae) culture in mangrove pens exists. This study evaluated the effects of mud crab netpen systems in central Philippines on mangrove macroflora, and the replacement of dietary fish with low-cost pellets. Wild or hatchery-sourced Scylla olivacea and Scylla serrata were stocked at 0.5–0.8 m-2 in 167–200 m2 nylon netpens (2.3 cm stretched mesh) in Avicennia-dominated mangrove habitats. The feeding treatments were: (A) Zarraga: (1) no feeding (natural productivity), (2) no feeding for 1 month+supplementary feeding, (3) fish biomass and (4) low-cost pellets, and (B) Batan: (1) fish biomass and (2) pellets+fish biomass. Feeds were given ad libitum twice daily. Growth and survival rates of S. olivacea in Zarraga pens were not significantly different among treatments, although crabs fed fish biomass had the highest survival, body weight and production. Similarly, growth and survival of S. serrata were not significantly different between the Batan treatments. Economic analysis of the latter gave a 38.5% return on investment (ROI) and 2.6 years payback period (PP) for pellets+fish biomass treatment compared with 27.5% ROI and 3.6 years PP for fish alone. Sensitivity analysis showed an improved economic performance of the pellets+fish biomass treatment by increasing the survival rate. Evaluation of mangrove community structure showed that crab culture reduced species diversity, numbers and biomass of seedlings and saplings, but not of mangrove trees. Therefore, mud crab pen culture is recommended for mangrove sites with mature trees, but not seedlings and saplings, and low-cost pellets can reduce dependence on fish biomass.
Conference paperJH Primavera - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe paper reports the use of mangroves by Scylla species both as wild and culture habitats. Based on published literature, natural mangrove crab populations are described in terms of population density, dispersal and movement within and outside mangroves, crab burrows and associated mangrove species. Strategies for Scylla conservation depend on the kind of mangrove habitat - (mangrove) restoration for open fringing mangroves where crab recruitment and abundance are determined by habitat availability vs stock enhancement in closed basin mangroves with restricted recruitment and limited movement of crabs. Mangrove crabs are also reared in monoculture in mangrove cages and pens, or in polyculture with milkfish in extensive ponds (where mangroves used to thrive). The paper describes a SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department study to evaluate the effects of mud crab net pen systems on mangrove macroflora, and the replacement of dietary trash fish with low-cost pellets. Results showed that incomplete, low-cost pellets can replace fish biomass requirement in mud crab diets, but that crab presence resulted in fewer mangrove seedlings and saplings. Economic analysis showed the viability of crab culture in mangrove pens using a combination of fish biomass and pellets to reduce the requirement for (low-value) fish, which is a food item of poor coastal communities.
Conference paperAT Triño & EM Rodriguez - In JH Primavera, LMB Garcia, MT Castaños & MB Surtida (Eds.), Mangrove-Friendly Aquaculture : Proceedings of the Workshop on Mangrove-Friendly Aquaculture organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, January 11-15, 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2000 - Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture DepartmentThe performance of the mud crab Scylla serrata (Forsskal) in 200 m2 pens installed in tidal flats with existing mangroves was determined in a factorial experiment with stocking density (0.5 or 1.5/m2) and feed (salted fish by-catch or a mixed diet of 75% salted brown mussel flesh and 25% salted fish by-catch) as main factors. Duration of the experiment was 160 days. Results showed no interaction between feed and stocking density so data were pooled for each feed and stocking density treatment. There was no significant differences in growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival, and production among two types of feed. Regardless of feed, the FCR was significantly more efficient and survival significantly higher at 0.5 than at 1.5/m2 stocking density. Growth, however, was not significantly different. Cost-return analysis on a per crop/200 m2 basis showed that the use of either of the two stocking density levels with either of the two types of feed was economically viable with a return on capital investment of 65-87%. Partial budgeting analysis, however, revealed that net earnings were increased by P1,128.00 if crabs were stocked at 1.5/m2 and P881.00 if fed a mixed diet of 75% salted brown mussel flesh and 25% salted fish by-catch compared with crabs stocked at 0.5/m2 and fed salted fish by-catch alone.