Abalone culture: an emerging aquaculture technology
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Fermin, A. C. (2001). Abalone culture: an emerging aquaculture technology. In Fishlink 2001, 29-31 May 2001, Sarabia Manor Hotel, Iloilo City (8 pp.). Iloilo City, Philippines: University of the Philippines Aquaculture Society.
PublisherUniversity of the Philippines Aquaculture Society
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Evaluation of density and cage design for the nursery and grow-out of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina Linne 1758 VC Encena II, M de la Peña & VT Balinas -
Journal of Shellfish Research, 2013 - National Shellfisheries AssociationThe effect of stocking density and cage design on the growth, survival rate, and feed conversion ratio was evaluated for the nursery (11–15 mm in shell length) and juvenile grow-out (26–30 mm in shell length) of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. Abalone were fed Gracilaria sp. within a randomized 2 × 3 factorial experiment using 2 stocking densities (Tl (500 pieces/m2) and T2 (1,000 pieces/m2)) and 3 cages (D1, box; D2, mesh cage; D3, prefabricated multitier trays). In addition, 3 stocking densities (T1, 50 pieces/m ; T2, 100 pieces/m; T3, 200 pieces/m) were evaluated in the prefabricated multitier trays. We found that, in the nursery experiment, 4-mo-old tropical abalone juveniles reared for 90 d showed no significant differences in growth (shell length and body weight) and survival rates among the 3 nursery cages used (Tukey's post hoc test, P > 0.05). Feed conversion ratio, however, was lowest for the high-density treatment T1D3 (7.8 ± 0.76) and was significantly different from the low density treatment T1D1 (11.32 ± 1.2) and intermediate density treatment T1D2 (12.39 ± 1.12; t-test, P > 0.05). Conversely, at higher densities (T2), the same trend applied with abalone reared in multitier basket systems (T2D3), having the highest growth rates and survival rates (29.3 ± 0.07 mm average shell length (ASL) and 5.16 ± 0.52 g average body weight (ABW)), followed closely by those reared in mesh cages (T2D2) and boxes (T2D1). Feed conversion ratio was also lowest for T2D3 (7.56 ± 0.79) and was significantly lower than T2D1 and T2D2. Between treatments, however, abalone reared at lower densities (T1) had significantly higher growth and survival than those reared at higher densities (T2), regardless of the nursery cage used, indicating an inverse relationship between stocking density, growth, and survival. For the grow-out study, tropical abalone reared in multitier trays at low densities (T1) attained the highest growth in shell length and body weight (49.7 ± 0.11 mm ASL and 29.8 ± 2.6 g ABW, respectively) at 180 d of culture, which was significantly greater than those reared in the high-density treatment (T3) with significantly smaller shell length and body weight (43.8 ± 0.18 mm ASL and 21.2 ± 2.0 g ABW), but not significantly different than the intermediate density treatment. This trend started from day 60 of culture onward when analyzed using Duncan's multiple range test (P > 0.05). Survival rates were not significantly different among stocking density treatments, nor were feed conversion ratios. We recommend, for nursery rearing of abalone juveniles, using multitier trays (D3) or boxes (D1) at 500 pieces/m2 stocking density to attain a grow-out size of 26–30 mm in shell length in 90 days. A stocking density of 100 pieces/m2 is recommended to grow abalone in multitier trays to attain a cocktail size of 50 mm ASL and 30 g ABW in 180 d with survival rates between 85.6% and 83.1%.
Shell marking by artificial feeding of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina Linne juveniles for sea ranching and stock enhancement WG Gallardo, MN Bautista-Teruel, AC Fermin & CL Marte -
Aquaculture Research, 2003 - Blackwell PublishingA method of marking abalone (Haliotis asinina Linne) for sea ranching and stock enhancement purposes was developed. Three-month-old abalone juveniles (11.8-mm shell length, 0.28 g) were fed artificial diets for 1, 2, or 3 weeks. The width of the bluish-green shell band produced by abalone juveniles was 1.7, 2.6, and 4.2 mm after 1, 2, or 3 weeks of feeding respectively. The growth and survival of juveniles fed artificial diets did not differ from that of juveniles fed the seaweed Gracilariopsis bailinae (control). Feeding the diet-fed juveniles with the seaweed thereafter produced the natural brownish shell, thus forming a sandwiched bluish-green band. An experimental release in outdoor tanks with natural growth of seaweeds and diatoms, and in a marine reserve showed that the shell band remained clear and distinct, indicating the usefulness of this shell marking method in sea ranching and stock enhancement of abalone.
Evaluation of agar-bound microparticulate diet as alternative food in abalone hatchery: Effects of agar concentrations and feeding frequencies MN Bautista-Teruel, MR de la Peña & AJ Asutilla -
Journal of Shellfish Research, 2013 - National Shellfisheries AssociationThe performance of an agar-bound microparticulate diet (A-MPD) was evaluated on feeding postlarval abalone Haliotis asinina, focusing on the effects of agar concentrations and feeding frequencies. Larval abalone, obtained from the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department hatchery, were reared in 60-L flow-through tanks with UV-filtered seawater. They were fed 1,200 mg A-MPD bound with either 5.0 mg/mL agar solution, 7.5 mg/mL agar solution, 10.0 mg/mL agar solution, and 12.5 mg/mL agar solution, or a natural diet consisting of diatoms at different feeding frequencies (daily, every other day, or every 2 d) starting at day 5. A 5 × 3 factorial experiment in a completely randomized design tested the effects of various treatments on postlarval settlement and survival after days 15 and 90. Scheffé's postcomparison test determined differences among treatments means. Postlarval settlement and survival were not significantly different in diets bound with higher agar concentrations and tested in 3 feeding frequencies. At lower levels of agar incorporation in diets, however, settlement and survival counts became significantly higher on daily feeding. Postlarval settlement and survival were significantly highest with abalone fed a diet bound with 7.5 mg/mL agar solution on a daily feeding frequency. Average percent weight loss in the feed was higher with lower levels of agar incorporation. Average particle size of both A-MPD and diatoms was 4–5 µm. Crude protein content of A-MPD was 42.7%; that of diatoms was 14.9%. A-MPD may be used as alternative food in abalone hatcheries with the incorporation of 7.5 mg/mL agar solution fed daily to abalone.