Selection of probiotics for shrimp and crab hatcheries.
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A study aimed at obtaining a biological control agent against bacterial diseases, specifically luminescent vibriosis, of hatchery-reared shrimps and crabs was done to find an alternative for chemotherapy as a disease prevention and control method. Bacteria were isolated from crustacean rearing environments where luminescent vibrosis was not observed, from natural food, and from various feed ingredients. From hundreds of purified strains, 80 bacterial isolates were tested in one-on-one mixed cultures in seawater for their ability to suppress the growth of luminescent Vibrio harveyi. Of the 10 isolates exhibiting that capability, two strains were further studied: C1 from chlorella culture and P9 from a commercial probiotic preparation. However, due to the indigenous nature of C1 strain from the unicellular alga Chlorella sp. and the ease in distinguishing it from other bacteria owing to its colony morphology, more tests were done on C1 strain. To determine the suitability of C1, and to some extent P9, as biocontrol bacteria, their pathogenicity against crab larvae and shrimp postlarvae, and their ability to become associated or incorporated into the larvae were determined. Incorporation into the rotifer, Brachionus, was also tested. Due to the positive results obtained in the incorporation experiments, the growth of strain C1 in microbiological media and unrefined media prepared from agricultural by-products was also tested.
Lavilla-Pitogo, C. R., Catedral, D. D., Pedrajas, S. A. G., & De la Peña, L. D. (2002). Selection of probiotics for shrimp and crab hatcheries. In Y. Inui & E. R. Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Disease Control in Fish and Shrimp Aquaculture in Southeast Asia – Diagnosis and Husbandry Techniques: Proceedings of the SEAFDEC-OIE Seminar-Workshop on Disease Control in Fish and Shrimp Aquaculture in Southeast Asia – Diagnosis and Husbandry Techniques, 4-6 December 2001, Iloilo City, Philippines (pp. 136–150). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department.
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Conference paperM Bonifacio - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe polyculture of mud crab with one to three other species (milkfish (Chanos chanos), tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and shrimp or sugpo (Penaeus monodon)) is a common practice in Region 3. Pond preparation is given importance prior to stocking of various species. Removal of sludge in the pond and application of probiotics are included in the standard pond preparation. The size and stocking densities of each species vary depending on the season. The volume of water to be replaced is based on the transparency of the water.The various species are fed natural food grown in the pond in addition to mollusks and low value fish given specifically for mud crab and shrimp. When pond water becomes transparent (indicating the decrease in phytoplankton density), the water is agitated using a small boat. If water continues to be transparent, fertilizers are applied to enhance growth of natural food. The pond water and animals are closely monitored to prevent diseases. Some of the early signs of occurrence of disease include the presence of bubbles on the water surface, and presence of weak shrimp on the feeding trays and along the dikes. The presence of weak shrimp and crab on the pond bottom and continuous swimming of these animals from night to dawn indicate poor pond water quality which can be remedied by circulating and flushing of the pond water every other day.
BookEJ Tobias-Quinitio, GXS Libunao, FD Parado-Estepa & AT Calpe - 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD)
Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 61"The production of soft-shell crabs is well established in other Asian countries but its sustainability is already being threatened due to the decreasing mud crab population in the wild where the seedstocks are sourced. In the Philippines, production of soft-shell crabs has only been practiced recently due to lack of seedstock and technology. Sourcing of crablets from the natural environment is not encouraged due to dwindling populations of all sizes of mud crabs. Instead, it is recommended that crablets for soft-shell crab production come from hatcheries. The project on soft-shell mud crab production at SEAFDEC/AQD started in 2012 and was later funded by the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development of the Department of Science and Technology. The project is adopting the individual crab culture sytem of Thailand and Myanmar in pilot-scale and uses hatchery-reared crablets grown to 60-100 g in earthen ponds and stocked in trays. The pilotscale soft-shell production set-up is showcased at the Dumangas Brackishwater Station of SEAFDEC/AQD using crab boxes available in the country. Various sectors are interested to learn how soft-shell crabs are produced. Hence, the previous manual on Soft-shell Mud Crab Farming by Emilia T. Quinitio and May Myat Noe Lwin published in 2009 was revised to include the recent refinements using hatchery-reared crabs and locally available materials. This manual includes sections on the biology of mud crab, how to set-up the facility, management of soft-shell crab production and the cost and return analysis. We hope that various sectors will benefit from this revised manual" -- Foreword
Conference paperK Ganesh, GK Dinakaran, T Sundaresan, K Satheesh Kumar, KV Gangadharan, S Viswanathan, S Pandiarajan & YC Thampi Sam Raj - In ET Quinitio, FDP Estepa, YC Thampi Sam Raj & A Mandal (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Seminar-Workshop on Mud Crab Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, 10-12 April 2013, Tamil Nadu, India, 2015 - Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Aquaculture (MPEDA)Soft-shell crab production is being practiced in many Asian countries but the major source of seedstock is from the wild, which could no longer sustain the increasing demand. Commercial scale soft-shell crab production can become sustainable only if there is a continuous supply of seedstock not dependent on wild stock. Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Aquaculture (RGCA) under the Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) has established a pilot-scale mud crab hatchery at Thoduvai, Nagapattinam District, Tamilnadu in 2004 with the technical assistance from SEAFDEC/AQD. At present, RGCA has the biggest mud crab hatchery in India and a demonstration farm at Karaikal, U.T. of Puducherry, where nursery rearing, grow-out and soft-shell crab production are conducted using hatchery- produced mangrove crabs or mud crabs, Scylla serrata. This paper presents the results of the soft-shell crab production using hatcheryproduced S. serrata juveniles maintained in perforated low density polyethylene (LDPE) boxes. The duration of the molt interval, time of molt (day or night) and the increase in body weight and carapace width of each size group (40-60, 61-80, 81-100, 101-120, 121-140, 141-160, 161-180 g) after molting were determined.Results showed that the percentage increase in body weight and carapace width increased as the crabs grew bigger. Likewise, the molt interval was longer in bigger-sized groups of crabs. Sixty to seventy percent of the population molted during night time and the next molt occurred within 25 days in 80-160 g size groups. Soft-shell crabs in boxes within the water surface and juvenile crabs (2.5 cm CW initial size) for culture until market size in the pond can be a viable technology technology for mud crab growers.