Status of grouper research in the Philippines
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Marte, C. (1998). Status of grouper research in the Philippines. In M. A. Rimmer, K. C. Williams, & M. J. Philipps (Eds.), Proceedings of the Grouper Aquaculture Research Workshop, 7-8 April 1998, Bangkok, Thailand (pp. 82-86). Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.
PublisherAustralian Centre for International Agricultural Research
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Book chapter | Article
Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) as a critical infectious disease of orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, in the Philippines I Kiryu, LD de la Peña, Y Yoshiura, M Ototake & Y Maeno - In K Nakamura (Ed.), Sustainable Production Systems of Aquatic Animals in Brackish Mangrove Areas, 2007 - Japan International Research Center for Agricultural SciencesOrange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, is a valuable commodity in the Philippines. In 2001, mass mortality occurred in the grouper larvae at Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD) and the disease was identified as viral nervous necrosis (VNN). Since then, the disease has been observed every year and the grouper hatcheries have been devastated. In this paper, recent studies of VNN which were conducted at the SEAFDEC/AQD from 2001 to 2006 are reviewed. 1) Susceptibility to the VNN virus was tested among fish species that were cultured in mangrove brackish are. Five representative cultured fish species including orange-spotted grouper, Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer), mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus), milkfish (Chanos chanos) and rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) were used in the test where the virus was intraperitoneally injected into the juveniles. Although low or no mortality occurred in the challenge test, histopathological changes were observed in the brain and retina where the virus was re-isolated. The results were the same among the species except for rabbitfish which had no evidence for the infection. It was verified that the virus has a wide host range. 2) To estimate the possible risk of viral spread by vertical transmission, virus distribution was determined in asymptomatic groupers including 7 broodstock and 17 juveniles with body weights ranging from 4 to 12 kg and 2 to 9 respectively. The virus was detected by PCR method. The highest detection rate was in the brain, and the virus was also detectable in other organs such as the gills, heart, spleen, kidney, blood, esophagus, stomach, intestine, liver, gonad, swim bladder and/or skin. 3) As a possible VNN vaccine, a DNA p;asmid encoding the capsid protein of the virus was evaluated. After the challenge, the mortalities between the native and DNA-injected fish appeared significantly different (P<0.05).
Apparent digestibility of selected ingredients in diets for juvenile grouper, Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for dry matter (ADCdm) and crude protein (ADCcp) of selected feed ingredients were determined in vivo for grouper using passive faeces collection (Guelph System). A reference diet (RF) and test diets (consisted of 70% RF and 30% test ingredient) with 1% Cr2O3 as an inert indicator were used. An RF contained 45% protein, 10% fat and 15.7 kJ g−1 metabolizable energy. Three isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets, each contained a test ingredient (white fish meal, white cowpea meal and ipil-ipil leaf meal), were used in a growth study based on ADCcp of feed ingredients. An RF without Cr2O3 was a control. The ADC values of experimental diets were also determined. In grouper, the ADCdm of white cowpea meal, defatted soybean meal, wheat flour and shrimp meal (74–76%) were significantly lower than that of squid meal (99%), but comparable with those of the fish meals (84–89%). No significant difference was observed between the ADCdm of ipil-ipil leaf meal, rice bran and wheat flour (56–73%). The ADCcp of white cowpea meal and defatted soybean meal were similar to those of the fish meals, squid meal and shrimp meal (94–99%). The ADCcp of wheat flour was comparable with that of ipil-ipil leaf meal (79–83%). Rice bran had the lowest ADCcp value of 43%. Based on specific growth rate (SGR), the growth of fish fed white cowpea meal-based diets was similar to that of the control fish (3.2–3.3% day−1). Also, no significant difference was observed between the ADCdm (68–72%) and ADCcp (88–91%) of white cowpea meal-based diet and the control diet. The results suggest that ADC values can be used as indicators to determine the nutritional value of feed ingredients. White cowpea meal can be incorporated as a protein source in practical diet for grouper at 20.5% of the diet with no adverse effect on growth.
Book chapterVR Alava, FMP Priolo, JD Toledo, JC Rodriguez Jr., GF Quinitio, AC Sa-an, MR de la Peña & RD Caturao - In MA Rimmer, S McBride & KC Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture, 2004 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
Series: ACIAR Monograph 110The main objectives of this project were to study the lipid chain transfer from the egg stage through hatching and the patterns of lipid conservation or loss during starvation and feeding of larvae in order to elucidate the lipid metabolism of grouper (Phase 1); to determine the fatty acid composition of highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) boosters and enriched live food organisms to enable the possibility of choosing food organisms that provide various dietary levels and ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (ARA, Phase 2); and to determine the effect of Brachionus and Artemia, containing different levels and ratios of DHA:EPA:ARA, on the growth and survival of grouper larvae (Phase 3). Total lipids (TL) of samples were extracted and separated into neutral (NL) and polar lipids (PL). The samples collected in Phase 1 were floating neurula eggs, newly hatched (NHL) and unfed 4-day larvae; larvae fed with live food organisms for 25 and 35 days or starved for 3 days; and wild-sourced larvae starved for a week. In Phase 2, the samples collected were phytoplanktons, Brachionus cultured in phytoplankton for 4 days, Diaphanosoma celebensis and Pseudodiaptomus annandalei. In phase 3, larvae were fed Brachionus until day 14 and at day 25 with Artemia. E. coioides eggs contained high DHA, EPA and ARA, demonstrating their importance in larval development. Larvae primarily spent NL as energy, whereas PL was generally conserved. Wild grouper larvae had higher levels of PL than NL, whereas hatchery-sourced eggs and larvae contained higher levels of NL than PL. Based on the lipid content of wild larvae, high phospholipid diets were essential for larvae survival and normal development. A variety of products were effective in enriching the HUFA content (particularly ratios of DHA, EPA and ARA) of live food organisms. HUFA-enriched live food organisms enhanced the growth, survival and pigmentation in grouper larvae.