Status of breeding and larval rearing of groupers
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Attempts to breed groupers in captivity started about four decades ago. Ukawa et al. (1966) described the successful fertilization and embryonic development of the red grouper Epinephelus akaara. Fueled by the high market value of live groupers and the inconsistent supply of juveniles from the wild, research on broodstock development and seed production of grouper has been intensified since the1980s. Natural or induced spawning in groupers was reported in Epinephelus tauvina (Chen et al. 1977, Hussain and Higuchi, 1980), E. malabaricus (Ruangpanit et al. 1986), E. salmoides (Kungvankij et al. 1986), E. fuscoguttatus (Lim et al. 1990), E. suillus (=E. coioides) (Toledo et al. 1993), E. polyphekadion (Sugama, pers. com), and Cromileptes altivelis (Sugama and Ikenoue 1999). Despite these developments, hatchery production of groupers remains unreliable. This paper reviews the status of breeding and larval rearing of groupers. Much of the information presented derives from the research and development studies on E. coioides at the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
Toledo, J. D. (2002). Status of breeding and larval rearing of groupers. In Report of the Regional Workshop on Sustainable Seafarming and Grouper Aquaculture, Medan, Indonesia, 17-20 April 2000. Collaborative APEC Grouper Research and Development Network (FWG 01/99) (pp. 47-54). Bangkok, Thailand: Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific.
PublisherNetwork of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific
- Conference Proceedings 
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Isolation, identification of causative agent of "red boil disease" in grouper (Epinephelus salmoides) and its possible control by vaccination SY Wong, B Ong & TE Chua - In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Pen Cage Culture of Fish, 11-22 February 1979, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1979 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center; International Development Research CentreThis report presents the initial results of studies on the isolation and identification of the causative agent as well as possible immunization of the estuary groupers. It is hoped that by a vaccination programme, fish could be made immune to such disease. Results indicate: (1) Vibrio parahaemolyticus is pathogenic to estuary grouper (2) that the vaccines did not seem to protect the fish against the vibrio when challenged one week after vaccination, but that this was due to slow antibody production of the fish as salmonids challenged about 30-35 days after vaccination reported good protection against Vibrio anguillarum and other bacterial diseases. Experiments are now in progress to challenge the vaccinated groupers at a later stage.
Book chapterJD Toledo - In IC Liao & EM Leaño (Eds.), The Aquaculture of Groupers, 2008 - Asian Fisheries Society; World Aquaculture Society; The Fisheries Society of Taiwan; National Taiwan Ocean UniversityCulture of groupers in ponds and floating net cages has been practiced for many years in the Philippines. Unsustainable culture practices such as dependence on wild caught seeds, use of trash fish, use of high stocking densities, and unregulated expansion and proliferation of fish cages, have led to the "boom and bust" cycle of grouper aquaculture in the Philippines. The drastic decrease in grouper aquaculture production in the late 90's was mainly attributed to environmental deterioration and diseases outbreaks. To sustain grouper production, research on the breeding, seed production and culture of groupers started in the mid 1980s. As a regional inter-government R&D organization, the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD) followed the recommendations of the 1987 Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia on grouper R&D. Research activities initially focused on market survey of grouper species in the Philippines and Southeast Asia, assessment of fry and availability in traditional fishing grounds, and development of broodstock management techniques. Following the spontaneous spawning of Epinephelus coioides in concrete tanks and floating net cages in 1990's, protocols for the seed production of milkfish and sea bass were adapted and modified. Parallel studies to determine sustainable culture techniques in ponds and net cages were conducted. Studies on the nutritional requirements of grouper at various developmental stages were done to reduce dependence on live prey organisms and trash fish as feeds. Research geared towards health management started in the in late 90's to early 2000's. Prospects for grouper aquaculture are discussed in the light of recent advances in grouper R&D and the Government of the Philippines initiatives to increase fish production by mariculture.