Effects of dietary carbohydrate, lipid and energy on the growth, feed efficiency, and tissue composition of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) fry
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The utilization of dietary carbohydrate and lipid as energy sources for bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) fry and various protein:energy ratios were investigated in a 2x3x3 factorial feeding experiment. Semi-purified diets containing two protein levels (28.9 and 37%) and three levels of lipid (4.26, 5.93 and 6.95%) and carbohydrate (42,48 and 53%) to give different total energy levels were fed to bighead carp fry (48.5 ± 3.5 mg) for 8 weeks.Growth of fry fed diets with 37% protein was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than that of fry fed diets with 28.9% protein level. An increase in dietary lipid from 4.26 to 6.95% depressed growth (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in feed conversion efficiency (FCE) at varying levels of protein and lipid, although their increments resulted in a decrease in FCE. Increase in dietary protein significantly decreased (P < 0.01) protein efficiency ratio (PER) while increase in dietary carbohydrate significantly decreased (P < 0.05) FCE and PER. Bighead carp fry fed diets containing 3131 and 3470 kcal metabolizable energy/kg and P:E ratio of 92 and 107 mg protein/kcal had the best overall performance. However, the 37% protein diet with approximately 4470 kcal metabolizable energy produced maximum growth. Growth was better with diets containing dietary lipid level of 4.26% and carbohydrate level of 42%. Tissue lipid increased significantly (P < 0.01) with an increase of dietary lipid and carbohydrate. However, inclusion of the highest level of both components in test diets decreased tissue lipid. Tissue protein was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in fry fed high protein diets and low levels of lipid and carbohydrate. Tissue protein, moisture and ash were inversely related to tissue lipid. Survival (%) increased (P < 0.01) with the increase of dietary protein and carbohydrate. Increase of dietary lipid did not significantly affect survival rates of bighead carp fry.
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Book chapterVR Alava - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis chapter teaches the reader to: differentiate the different feeding strategies in pond culture; learn feeding management methods such as stock sampling and record keeping, calculating daily feed ration, choosing appropriate feed size, and methods of applying feeds; understand the impact of feeding management on water quality and environment and on the cultured animal’s growth, survival, and feed conversion ratio; and describe the different feeding schemes used to culture fishes (milkfish, tilapia, rabbitfish, bighead carp, native catfish, sea bass, orange-spotted grouper, and mangrove red snapper; and crustaceans (tiger shrimp and mud crab). Other species for aquaculture stock enhancement (donkey’s ear abalone, seahorses, window-pane oyster) are also discussed.
Book chapterNV Golez - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis chapter will help the reader understand and appreciate the basic principles of processing, preparation, storage, and quality control in the preparation of aquafeeds. The material in this section is presented in sequence beginning with the processing of basic ingredients to remove antinutritional factors, followed by steps in feed preparation, from the easiest to the more complex processes, and storage. This chapter presents methods and equipment that are useful not only for feed millers, but also for extension workers and fish farmers.
Conference paperN Ishida, T Koshiishi, T Tsuzaki, S Yanagi, S Katayama, M Satoh & S Satoh - In MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation … Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterA non-fish meal diet using plant and/or animal protein materials for yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata was developed. Three kinds of non-fish meal diets and a control diet containing 50% fish meal were processed. In the non-fish meal diets, the fish meal was replaced with commercially available plant or animal materials and supplemented with taurine and other ingredients for maintaining palatability. These diets were fed to one year old yellowtail (body weight: 753±96 g) in net cages. No significant differences in growth, daily weight gain, daily feed rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio were observed among fish given the diets. Non-fish meal diets were processed in a factory and their biological characteristics were studied such as uptake, stomach evacuation rate, and disease resistance. In addition, the diet palatability of each substitute protein source for fish was examined and ingredients that enhanced palatability of the non-fish meal diets were identified. Non-fish meal diets have the potential to support the growth of one year old yellowtail.