Control of gonad growth, maturation and spawning in teleost fish: A review
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Despite their great variety of reproductive strategies, a general characteristic of most teleosts is that (where known) natural reproduction shows a long-term periodicity, even in tropical habitats (e.g. see contributions in Munro et al. 1990a). Typically, gonad development from puberty leads to fully-grown gonads by the advent of the spawning season; if conditions are appropriate, then final gonad maturation leads to the production of viable gametes during one or more breeding bouts. Subsequently, in those larger species which spawn over more than one season, the gonads regress and the individual returns to a phase where any growth is somatic. However, there is wide interspecific variability in the pattern of gonad development (Wallace and Selman 1981, de Vlaming 1983, Billard 1986, Selman and Wallace 1989).
Munro, A. D., & Lam, T. J. (1996). Control of gonad growth, maturation and spawning in teleost fish: A review. In C. L. Marte, G. F. Quinitio, & A. C. Emata (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Breeding and Seed Production of Cultured Finfishes in the Philippines, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 4-5 May 1993 (pp. 1-53). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/564
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Conference paperPRS Tampi & P Bensam - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis account is a brief review of the investigation carried out in India on the various aspects of the biology of the milkfish. It covers the records of observations on the distribution of Chanos fry in the coastal areas, food and feeding of the fish, its growth, maturity, fecundity and spawning, and also certain experimental results on the physiological adaptation of the fish together with the histological structures of its kidney, pituitary and thyroid. While emphasising the paucity of data on the adult milkfish in the wild, the priority areas where information is lacking especially on the spawning ground, reliable identifying characters of the egg as well as on the possible existence of different racial stocks have been discussed.
Assessment of humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), spawning aggregations and declaration of marine protected area as strategy for enhancement of wild stocks FG Romero & AS Injaki - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterHumphead wrasse, known as the Napoleon fish (Cheilinus undulatus), is the largest living member of the family Labridae. It is slow growing but can grow to a maximum size exceeding 2 m and 190 kg. This species was the first commercially important coral reef food fish to be listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix II in 2004 because of its vulnerable status and the ongoing threat to its conservation from international trade. Like many coral reef fishes, the humphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus, aggregate in reef areas when they spawn and this spawning behaviour makes them highly vulnerable to overfishing. Assessment of the spawning aggregations of this species was conducted in the municipalities of Sibutu and Sitangkai in the province of Tawi-Tawi, Philippines. Key informant interviews (KII) with fishermen, mariculturists, and other stakeholders and focus group discussions (FGD) with local government leaders, Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management (FARMC) members, mariculturists, and exporters were conducted. Guided by the results of these KII and FGDs, underwater visual census of mameng (local common name for Napoleon wrasse) populations (juvenile and mature) were conducted to document spawning aggregation sites. Since there was no photo-documentation of actual spawning aggregations of mameng in the reef areas, indirect measures were used. Result of the KII and FGD indicated that the Baligtang Reef in Sipangkot and Tando Owak are major sources of spawners. Anecdotal accounts of Bajau fishermen showed that Dungun Dungon, Baligtang reef, Tando Owak and Tugalan are traditional fishing grounds for mameng spawning aggregations. From the length-frequency analysis of mameng caught by hook and line and fish pot in the Baligtang Reef in Sipangkot, the estimated length at maturity of this species was found to be 25-35 cm. There were 134 individuals caught within this size range so they are considered potential spawners. Another indirect proof used was the underwater documentation of juvenile humphead wrasse which were regularly observed and photographed in association with seagrass beds and branching coral reefs in Baligtang Reef in Sipangkot, Sitangkai. Gonadal study also indicated that the mameng caught in this area had mature and ripe gonads but the number of mature fish depends on the season. These were the basis of declaring Spawning Aggregation Sites in Tando Owak and Dungun Dungun in Sibutu and Baligtang Reef, Sipangkot and Tugalan in Sitangkai. These were declared as marine protected areas by ordinance of the municipal Sangguniang Bayan of the two municipalities. Management and enforcement plans have been developed and Bantay Dagat have been trained to protect the spawning aggregations and this strategy aims to protect the wild stocks of humphead wrasse. Protecting the spawners would ensure that there would be enough recruits, prevent recruitment overfishing and enhance the wild stocks.
Gonadal maturation, fecundity, spawning and timing of reproduction in the mud snail, Cerithidea cingulata, a pest in milkfish ponds in the Philippines I Lantin-Olaguer & TU Bagarinao -
Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 2001 - Taylor & FrancisGonadal maturation, spawning, fecundity and timing of reproduction of the snail Cerithidea cingulata in a brackish water pond in Molo, Iloilo, Philippines, are described. Snails 4–41 mm in shell length were sampled monthly from May 1997 to May 1998; 25% were <25 mm, 67% were 20–30 mm, and 8% were >30 mm. The sexes are separate and could first be distinguished at 15 mm. Males are aphallic, have narrower shells than females of the same length, and have bright yellow-orange testes overlying the digestive gland deep inside the shell. Females have more robust shells, an ovipositor at the right side of the foot, and yellow-green ovaries overlying the digestive gland. The sex ratio was one male to two females in the pond population studied. Gonadal maturation was monitored by means of gonadosomatic index (GSI, gonad weight as a percent of visceral weight); maturation stages were based on the gonad appearance (immature, developing, mature) and histology (immature, developing, mature, redeveloping). GSI increased with snail size, and reached 16% in a 33-mm female. The smallest mature males and females were 18–19 mm, and most snails >20 mm were mature, spawning, or redeveloping. Histological sections showed all stages of gametogenesis in mature male snails. The oocyte size-frequency distributions in mature females showed mostly mature oocytes and secondary oocytes, but also oogonia and primary oocytes. GSI and the frequency of snails at different maturation stages varied over the year. Both GSI and the frequency of mature snails were highest during the summer months, April to August. Nevertheless, mature snails occurred throughout the whole year, as did mating and egg-laying. Fecundity (= number of oocytes >70 pμ) increased with size in mature females 2041 mm; an average 25-mm female produced about 1,500 oocytes and larger females produced a maximum of about 2,500 oocytes. Eggs strings laid on the pond bottom were 45–75 mm long; an average 64-mm string contained 2,000 eggs 210+20 pm in diameter. The density of eggs strings was highest (80–120/m2) during March-September. Eggs hatched after 6–7 d into planktonic veligers, which in turn settle on the pond bottom 11–12 d later as juveniles. Juveniles 2–6-mm long were most abundant in the pond during August-October.