Successful use of cryopreserved oyster trocophores as a live first feed larval marine fish and invertebrates
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Trochophore-stage larvae of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas were cryopreserved in bulk and stored in liquid nitrogen for periods up to two years before thawing and feeding to a variety of warmwater and coldwater larval marine fish, as well as to marine shrimps and other invertebrates. The commercial product ("TrochoFeed"), marketed in both pre-thawed and cryopreserved versions, has been used successfully in the early rearing of cultured species including red drum, snook, grouper, and black cod, as well as for numerous warmwater and coldwater aquarium display fish. This paper describes the nutritional profile of the cryopreserved trochopores and presents a summary of the available growth and mortality data.
Harvey, B. J. (1996). Successful use of cryopreserved oyster trocophores as a live first feed larval marine fish and invertebrates. In C. L. Marte, G. F. Quinitio, & A. C. Emata (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Breeding and Seed Production of Cultured Finfishes in the Philippines, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 4-5 May 1993 (pp. 166-169). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/579
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Diets; Growth rate; Food organisms; Mortality; Warm-water aquaculture; Feed; Marine invertebrates; Spat; Invertebrate larvae; Molluscan larvae; Seed production; Fish larvae; Aquarium culture; Freezing storage; Thawing; Feed composition; Marine fish; Rearing; Nutritive value; Marine molluscs; Marine aquaculture; Mortality causes; Fish culture; Decapoda; Crassostrea gigas; Invertebrata; Pacific giant oyster; Philippines
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Conference paperVR Alava, JB Biñas & MAE Mandario - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterMarine worms (Annelida: Polychaeta) are considered as important food for crustacean broodstock because they contain hormones and correct balance of essential nutrients for reproduction. Marphysa mossambica (Peters, 1854) occurs in muddy coastal areas and is abundant in fish farms where it builds burrows in nutrient-rich sediments. This species encapsulates their eggs and larvae in gelatinous masses (jelly cocoons). It is a multiple spawner, and breeders are repeatedly spawning in tanks. Culture techniques have also been developed and established in tanks. Based on dry weight, cultured M. mossambica contained 62-66% crude protein and 7-12% lipids with levels of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) such as arachidonic (20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) at 0.2-0.5%, 0.2-0.3% and 0.3-0.5%, respectively. Stocks were monitored for the presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using polymerase chain reaction-based diagnostic methods. The WSSV-free polychaetes mass-produced in tanks were utilized as live food for mud crab S. serrata broodstock. Mud crab broodstock fed natural food (mussel, fish, and squid) with live Marphysa on daily feed rotation produced higher number of crab zoeae, larval survival, total lipids and HUFAs than those fed natural food without live Marphysa. Production of nutrient-rich WSSV-free polychaetes in captivity can play a significant role in supporting crustacean hatcheries that supply seeds to the nursery and grow-out.
ArticleThe SS-type rotifer Brachionus rotundiformis is a common initial food for rearing fish larvae with a small mouth. However, there are commercially important fish species whose mouth sizes are too small to feed on SS-type rotifers. In 2004, we isolated a small (body length = 82.7 ± 10.9 μm; body width 40.5 ± 6.4 μm), flexible, and iloricate rotifer, Proales similis from an estuary in Okinawa, Japan. Under laboratory conditions (25 °C, 2–25 ppt) P. similis produced its first offspring on 2.5 to 2.8 days after hatching, and produced 4.3 to 7.8 offspring within 4.0 to 4.7 days life span. Batch cultured P. similis fed Nannochloropsis oculata suspension at 28.8 μg dry weight ml− 1 and cultured at 25 °C, 25 ppt filtered seawater, increased exponentially from 25 to 2400 ind ml− 1 after 11 days of culture with an overall intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) of 0.42 day− 1. The growth rate of P. similis was not significantly different when fed fresh N. oculata and super fresh Chlorella vulgaris-V12®. Total lipid per wet weight of P. similis fed by N. oculata and C. vulgaris were 2.4 and 2.6%, respectively. The compositions of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (ARA) of P. similis fed N. oculata were 23.2, 0.0 and 5.3%, respectively, while these were 11.0, 17.5 and 0.5% respectively, when fed C. vulgaris. The use of P. similis to feed small mouth fish including seven-band grouper Epinephelus septemfasciatus, rusty angelfish Centropyge ferrugata, and humphead wrasse Cheilinus undulatus showed that it is an excellent starter food for these species because of their high selectivity index and improved survival. In addition, P. similis was ingested by Japanese eel Anguilla japonica larvae with a complicated digestive system. The use of P. similis as starter feed for small mouth fish larvae is highly recommended.
Enrichment potential of HUFA-rich thraustochytrid Schizochytrium mangrovei for the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis An enrichment experiment was performed to evaluate the changes in lipid and essential fatty acid contents of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis fed with freeze-dried cells of tropical thraustochytrid Schizochytrium mangrovei (Isolate IAo-1). Rotifers starved for 24 h were fed with S. mangrovei cells at 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 mg L−1. Enrichment was carried out at two periods (Short-term = 5 h; Long-term = 10 h) to determine the optimum time needed for the maximum enrichment of the rotifers. There was an overall significant increase in the total lipid, arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) contents of rotifers after feeding with freeze-dried S. mangrovei indicating the successful uptake of these nutrients in the rotifer's biochemical composition. On the other hand, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) did not change significantly in enriched rotifers. Results of the present study indicate that both factors, feeding concentrations and enrichment periods, significantly affected the lipid, AA and DHA contents of rotifers. Uptakes of lipid, AA and DHA significantly increased with increasing feeding concentrations except for those fed the highest feeding concentration of 700 mg L−1 for 10 h. Moreover, lipid and AA contents of enriched rotifers were significantly higher during the short-term enrichment period while DHA contents were significantly higher during the long-term enrichment period. Therefore, it is concluded that the feeding concentration of 700 mg L−1 at an enrichment period of 5 h is optimum in the AA and DHA enrichment of rotifers. The strategic scheme of combining the proper amount of enrichment product and the duration of enrichment in boosting the DHA contents of rotifers will effectively ensure a reliable production of nutritionally superior rotifers at a minimal cost. This will ultimately contribute to the success of rearing marine fish larvae in the hatchery.