Recent Submissions

  • Conference poster

    Recruitment of postlarval penaeid prawns in the Vellar estuary, South India. 

    Ramasamy A. & AP Pandian - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The northern bank of Vellar estuary (Parangipettai, India) is ideal for postlarval penaeid prawn recruitment. The annual recruitment, distribution and the substratum preference of postlarval immigrants at three different stations in the estuary were studied in detail.

    Among the postlarvae of Penaeus, P. (Fenneropenaeus) indicus was dominant followed by P. (Penaeus) monodon, P. (P.) semisulcatus, P. (F.) merguiensis and P. (Melicertus) latisulcatus. In Metapenaeus, postlarvae of M. monoceros were abundant followed by M. dobsoni, M. affinis, M. bre-vicornis and M. lysianassa.

    Two peaks were observed in the postlarval penaeid prawn population. In P (F.) indicus and P. (P.) monodon, the primary peak occurred from January to April and the secondary peak from July to September. In M. monoceros and M. dobsoni, the primary peak was from March to May and the secondary peak from August to September. The postlarvae of P. (F.) indicus, P. (P.) monodon, M. monoceros and M. dobsoni were available throughout the year while the others were seasonal. The distribution of postlarvae in the estuary is related to the type of substratum, salinity and temperature. The postlarval population declined during the northeast monsoon (November-December) and in peak summer (May-June). Their abundance decreased in the lower salinity areas of the upper reaches of the estuary.
  • Oral presentation

    A preliminary economic analysis for extensive and semi-intensive shrimp culture in South Carolina, U.S.A. 

    PA Sandifer & LL Bauer - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    South Carolina has some 28,500 ha of impounded coastal wetlands. These impoundments are remnants of the rice culture industry of the 19th century and are now of interest for waterflow management and possibly aquaculture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the potential for extensive commercial culture of shrimp in salt-marsh impoundments with that for semi-intensive production of shrimp in highland ponds.

    A hypothetical farm consisting of four 8-ha impoundments or ponds was chosen as the basis for the analysis, and it was assumed that only one crop of shrimp could be produced per year. Two alternative strategies for stocking the impoundments were evaluated: option 1, stock by natural recruitment via tide gates; option 2, stock at low density (25,000/ha) with hatchery-reared postlarvae. Highland ponds were to be stocked at a density of 75,000 PL/ha with hatchery-reared animals. Major fixed costs other than land purchase were considered, including renovation of existing impoundments by cross-diking to form 8-ha units and addition of extra tide gates. Estimates of annual and variable costs for postlarvae (where applicable), feed, labor, chemicals, pumping, supplies, vehicle use, mowing, interest, overhead, and miscellaneous items were also included in the analysis. Results indicated that extensive shrimp culture in salt water impoundments is likely to be a break-even or profitable activity for production levels of 90 kg whole shrimp/ha for stocking option 1, while option 2 would require yields of ≥225 kg/ha. In comparison, semi-intensive culture in highland ponds is likely to be successful if yields of ≥ 800 kg/ha are obtained. This preliminary analysis suggests that both extensive and semi-intensive culture of shrimp may be economically feasible in South Carolina, but this potential is as yet un-proven and shrimp aquaculture must be considered a high risk venture in this area.
  • Oral presentation

    Description of the embryonic stages of Penaeus notialis and the influence of some abiotic factors on the species. 

    I Fernandez & M Oliva - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The embryonic development of the shrimp Penaeus notialis Farfante, 1967 is studied. The duration from spawning to hatching of the nauplii was 14-16 hr. As soon as spawning occurs, a sequence of transformations is observed in the characteristic cell mitosis up to the formation of the embryo which breaks the membrane and emerges as the first naupliar stage. The process of development is very similar to other penaeids and the duration of each stage is characteristic of the species. The influence of salinity and pH on spawning, hatching rate and survival, and the optimal values for each factor were determined.
  • Oral presentation

    Induction to ovary maturation by ablation in the pink shrimp Penaeus notialis. 

    L Ramos - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    A partial unilateral ablation was carried out on immature females of the pink shrimp Penaeus notialis. They were maintained in 1,600 ℓ asbestos-cement tanks together with apparently mature males, not submitted to treatment, at a ratio of 2 females: 1 male. A quick development of the ovary was attained, which did not present significant differences in average diameter of the ovocytes in the anterior, median, and posterior lobes, and with similar histological characteristics to those described for naturally mature females. Viable spawnings were obtained three days after the treatment and onwards. The larvae obtained showed normal activity and development.
  • Conference poster

    The production economics of an integrated prawn hatchery-floating nursery project. 

    R Agbayani, N Franco, D Israel, D De La Peña & AT Young - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The paper aims to present an economic evaluation of an integrated prawn (Penaeus monodon) hatchery-floating nursery project using standard economic tools and methods of analysis. The data used in the analysis were taken from SEAFDEC AQD experience at the Batan, Aklan Research Substation hatchery-floating nursery project. The technical bases were gathered from researchers after the peculiarities of aquaculture vis-a-vis other business ventures in agriculture and industry were taken into consideration.

    The study shows that an integrated hatchery-floating nursery project is a profitable culture system. The rate of return on investment for this integrated project ranges from 29 to 47% while payback period ranges from 1.8 to 2.6 years. A separate economic analysis of a hatchery project and a floating nursery was also undertaken to determine the profitability of independently operating each subsystem. The analysis shows better results for the floating nursery subsystem as compared to the hatchery subsystem. Return on investment and payback period for the floating nursery range from 23 to 78% and 1 to 3 years, respectively, while those for the hatchery range from 20 to 36% and 2.3 to 3.7 years, respectively.
  • Oral presentation

    Thermal tolerance of larval greentail prawn Metapenaeus bennettae (Raced and Dall) a comparison with school prawn Metapenaeus macleayi. 

    T Murai - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The thermal tolerance of four larval stages of Metapenaeus bennettae was studied in the laboratory. Critical Thermal Maximum (CTM), One hour Median Lethal Temperature (lhLT50), and Median Resistance Time (MRT) were measured. Moulting rate of larvae and hatching rate of embryos were also monitored to study the delayed effect of thermal stress.

    Thermal tolerance was shown to be strongly dependent on acclimation temperature (TA) at all larval stages,which showed ontogenetic development of thermal resistance. Moulting of larvae was hindered at temperatures (37.2°C for nauplius when TA=25°C) well below lhLT50 (38.1°C for nauplius when TA=25°C). The embryonic stages were more susceptible to thermal stress than the larval stages. The salinity effects were also significant. Nauplius and protozoea stages showed their highest CTM values at the salinity in which they were spawned.When compared with another penaeid M. macleayi (offshore breeder), M. bennettae (estuarine breeder) was found to have higher thermal resistance, but was less adaptive to changes in acclimation temperature.
  • Oral presentation

    Effect of various levels of squid protein on growth and some biochemical parameters of Penaeus japonicus juveniles. 

    LC Suarez, J Guillaume & AV Wormhoudt - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    An unknown growth factor previously suspected in squid meal was found in the protein fraction of squid (Loligo vulgaris). It is clearly different from hydro-alcohol-soluble feed attractants that are also present in squid meal. This squid protein fraction (SPF) improves the growth of Penaeus japonicus juveniles when added either in a semi-purified or in a more complex mixed diet. This growth-promoting effect does not seem to be related to the amino acid composition of SPF. In order to obtain more information on its action, several levels (1.5 to 16.0%) of SPF were added to a mixed diet. The diets were isoproteic (59% D.M.), isolipidic (8.5% D.M.), supplemented with vitamins, cholesterol, glucosamine, etc. They were fed as wet pellets to 3 replicates of 15 shrimp; blue mussel was used as the control. The growth of shrimp increased with the SPF level and attained a plateau above 6%. Body weight was significantly higher than that of the control group at this level. RNA content and RNA:DNA ratio increased with the SPF level indicating that growth was improved more by hypertrophy than by hyperplasy of the cells.

    The hepatosomatic ratio remained unchanged. The assay of two digestive enzymes, proteases and amylases, showed no clear effect of SPF on protease or amylase activities. More experiments are needed to explain the effect of the unknown growth factor of SPF.
  • Conference paper

    A review of maturation and reproduction in closed thelycum penaeids 

    JH Primavera - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Commercially important penaeids of the closed thelycum group belong to five subgenera of the genus Penaeus — Penaeus, Fenneropenaeus, Marsupenaeus and Melicertus that are almost exclusively Indo-West Pacific and Farfantepenaeus that is predominantly Western Atlantic. Since the ablation of Penaeus duorarum more than a decade ago, the first for any penaeid, around 23 species have been matured in captivity, 17 of them belonging to the closed thelycum subgenera (P. aztecus, P. brasiliensis, P. californiensis, P. duorarum, P. esculentus, P. indicus, P. japonicus, P. kerathurus, P. latisulcatus, P. merguiensis, P. monodon, P. notialis, P. orientalis, P. paulensis, P. penicillatus, P. plebejus, and P. semisulcatus).

    The complete spectrum of controlled reproduction in penaeids covers maturation, spawning, hatching of eggs into viable larvae, and the production of postlarvae to constitute the next batch of broodstock. The full closing of the cycle has been achieved in at least six closed thelycum species whereas gaps, e.g. inability of mature females to spawn or nonhatching of eggs, remain for the others.

    Spawners or mature females used in commercial hatcheries and research laboratories are either wild-caught or matured in captivity with human control ranging from nil to a regular closing of the cycle. Wild spawners may be spawned directly after capture and transport or subjected to environmental manipulation, e.g. thermal control to induce or inhibit spawning. Females matured in captivity may come from wild broodstock (adults and subadults caught from estuaries or "sourced" by trawlers from offshore waters) or captive (pond- or tank-reared) broodstock. Introduced or exotic penaeid species must depend on a pond- or tank-reared broodstock whereas indigenous prawns and shrimps may be constituted from wild or captive broodstock.

    There are three basic approaches employed singly or in combination to induce ovarian maturation in penaeids — endocrine, dietary or nutritional and environmental. Endocrine manipulation has so far been synonymous with unilateral eyestalk ablation, a technique with far-reaching impact on penaeid aquaculture. Closed thelycum penaeids may be classified into those that require ablation in order to mature and those that do not. To a third group belong species that have been experimentally induced to mature with and without ablation.

    Diets for maturation include fresh and frozen animal sources (mussel, clam, oyster, squid, marine worms, shrimps, fish) and formulated pellets given in any combination. The choice of marine worms and mollusks is based on their high levels of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid, the dominant fatty acids found in mature ovaries and testes. Environmental parameters studied in relation to maturation include light (intensity, quality and photoperiod), temperature, salinity and pH.

    Although a regular closing of the cycle has been achieved for some, the state-of-the-art for most penaeids is the successful production of larvae and postlarvae from either wild spawners or wild immature/spent females matured/rematured in captivity. The improvement of reproductive performance including larval quality from captive broodstock remains a major area for future research and includes the determination of minimum age and size for maturation. The complete description of the nutritional and environmental requirements for maturation should lead to the development of alternatives to ablation such as photoperiod manipulation or the use of reproductive hormones.

    The present focus on characterizing the physicochemical and dietary requirements for maturation should be extended to other phases of reproduction: mating, spawning, fertilization and hatching. Studies on biology (molting, mating, fertilization including the cortical reaction) and biochemistry (maturation stages) provide baseline information for designing maturation tanks and formulating broodstock pellets. Investigations of wild stocks complement laboratory studies in elucidating the interrelationships among molting, mating, maturation and spawning.

    Manual spermatophore transfer is being developed to solve the problem of nonmating in closed (and open) thelycum species. This technique will also be useful in future hybridization work, together with in vitro fertilization.
  • Oral presentation

    The economics of different prawn and shrimp pond culture systems: A comparative analysis 

    D Israel, F Apud & N Franco - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The paper aims to present a comparative economic evaluation of different pond culture systems for prawn (Penaeus monodon) and shrimp (P. indicus and P. merguiensis) using standard economic tools and methods of analysis. The different culture systems include extensive and semi-intensive monoculture of prawns and shrimps and the extensive polyculture of these species with milkfish (Chanos chanos). Data used in the analysis were taken from both SEAFDEC AQD and industry experience. The technical data were gathered from researchers and private sector experiences in prawn and shrimp farming. Financial estimates were determined after the peculiarities of aquaculture vis-a-vis other business ventures in agriculture and industry were taken into consideration.

    The study shows that the extensive monoculture of prawns and the extensive polyculture of prawn with shrimp and milkfish are profitable culture systems. Return on investment (ROI) and payback period for prawn extensive monoculture systems range from 10 to 65% and from 1.4 to 8.6 years, respectively. For polyculture systems, ROI ranges from 8 to 85% and payback period from 1.1 to 10.5 years. The semi-intensive culture of prawn shows moderate results. This is largely due to higher capital requirements for semi-intensive culture as compared to extensive culture. The extensive and semi-intensive monoculture of shrimps on the other hand show poor results, with semi-intensive monoculture registering net losses after all costs are considered.
  • Book | Conference publication

    Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, Iloilo City, Philippines, 4-7 December 1984 

    Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.) - 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Abstracts of the 78 papers presented at the conference are cited individually.
  • Conference paper

    Extensive and semi-intensive culture of prawn and shrimp in the Philippines 

    FD Apud - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Various farming systems for prawn and shrimp are compared, with emphasis on the extensive and semi-intensive culture of tiger prawn Penaeus monodon and white shrimp Penaeus indicus in monoculture or in polyculture with milkfish (Chanos chanos). The bases of comparison include pond design characteristics, stocking density, food supply, water management, average production, technical, and other major input requirements. Common factors that may influence production for each system are also discussed.

    It is observed that prawn and shrimp production has been mainly characterized by the extensive system. Of the 200,000 ha of brackishwater fishponds in the Philippines, about 25% (50,000 ha) are stocked with prawns and shrimps in monoculture or in polyculture with milkfish. Only a relatively small portion (less than 500 ha) of the area is utilized for semi-intensive culture. The dramatic increase in area utilization for extensive prawn production in recent years can be attributed to high market demand, increased hatchery-bred fry production, minimum technical requirements, and lower production cost and risks.

    The trend towards intensification among existing large fishfarms is hampered by rising capital costs for fishpond improvement and increasing operational expense and risks. However, intensification is gaining some attention and progress in limited areas, primarily to maximize utilization and production to avoid high investment cost of land for expansion. Further development and progress in the industry will be dependent on such factors as market price, availability of fry and feed at reasonable cost, supply of trained technicians, technical problems, financial situation, and economic viability of the operation.
  • Conference poster

    Environmental physiology of the prawn Penaeus (melicertus) latisulcatus. 

    A Ramasamy & AP Pandian - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    There are a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors which affect the normal routine activity of the prawn. The present study attempts to elucidate the optimum levels of various environmental factors for the culture of prawns.

    The salinity tolerance capacity of Penaeus (Melicertus) latisulcatus was estimated in 13 different test salinities from 0 to 60 ppt (at 5 ppt increments). The prawns can tolerate a wide salinity range of 20-50 ppt. Maximum survival, however, was between 25 to 45 ppt. The extreme low (0-10 ppt) and high (60 ppt) salinities were highly lethal to the prawns. The change in acclimation temperature from 30 to 35°C increased the upper incipient lethal level from 38.5 to 39.5°C. The prawns acclimated to 30°C tolerated 42°C for 275 sec and 45.5°C for 13 sec, while prawns acclimated to 35°C tolerated 42°C for 505 sec and 46.5°C for 11 sec.

    Prawns were acclimated to a salinity of 26 ppt and oxygen consumption was measured at 5, 15, 26, and 38 ppt in a continuous water-flow method. The total oxygen consumption showed an inverse relationship with weight. Oxygen consumption declined with increase in salinity. The resistance of prawns to hydrogen sulphide was tested in 18 different concentrations of sodium sulphide mixed with seawater. The prawns tolerated sodium sulphide concentrations up to 20 mg/ℓ. The dissolved oxygen in the water was found to be reduced to very low levels with the increase in the concentration of sodium sulphide (from 5.9 ml O2/ℓ to 0.54 ml O2/ℓ). This may cause heavy mortality of the prawns.
  • Conference poster

    Survival, growth and production of white shrimp Penaeus indicus in brackishwater ponds. 

    FD Apud, D Javellana & R Jomen - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    This study was conducted in 4 one-ha ponds, 70-100 cm deep and 2 two-ha ponds, 40-70 cm deep to evaluate the survival, growth and production of white shrimp, Penaeus indicus stocked at 50,000/ha and cultured within a period of 90 days with supplementary feeding.

    It was observed that mean survival and yield per ha obtained were significantly higher in deeper ponds, 70.36% and 343.2 kg/ha, respectively, compared with those in shallow ponds, 37.50% and 180 kg/ha, respectively (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in mean body weight at harvest for deep ponds (9.80 g) and shallow ponds (9.55 g). Results suggest that white shrimp production is better in deeper ponds than in shallow ponds.
  • Conference paper

    A brief review of the larval rearing techniques of penaeid prawns. 

    IC Liao - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    As early as half a century ago, Hudinaga successfully spawned and attempted to rear the larvae of Penaeus japonicus. Publications in the 1960 s, 70's and 80's on breakthroughs in larval rearing of one penaeid species after another indicated that practical prawn farming had become a reality. At present, there are 24 Penaeus species and seven Metapenaeus species whose larval rearing techniques are partially or fully established. Among them, only nine species are propagated on a large commercial scale. The other species are now produced only on a small scale or experimentally.

    There are many published papers dealing with larval rearing techniques of penaeid prawns. However, it is recognized that numerous details and problems remain unsolved pending further investigation and improvement. P. japonicus is the species which boasts the longest research history and the most successful larval rearing techniques. Nevertheless, there is little which scientists are able to do with the serious "white-turbid midgut gland disease" which has plagued the postlarvae of P. japonicus for the past several years. Similarly. P. monodon larval culture in the Philippines was once seriously affected by a fungus disease cause by Lagenidium sp., which resulted in poor survival rate.

    Suitable larval rearing methods differ from one species to another, all showing varying degrees of modification from the major principles of larval rearing techniques of penaeid prawns. For example, a hatchery can easily obtain several hundred spawners of P. japonicus, but this is never the case with P. monodon. Therefore, the community culture method for rearing larvae in large tanks is preferred for the former species, while the separate tank method, also called the monoculture method, is best for the latter.

    In general, larval rearing techniques of prawns is at its rapid growing stage. The status of larval rearing including rearing methods, feeding regimes and rearing systems, are herein summarized and introduced. The high priority problems to be solved, such as 1) selection of spawners, 2) improvement of rearing techniques, 3) larval diseases, 4) shipping methods, and 5) social impact are discussed and the prospects of larval rearing are described.
  • Conference poster

    Characterization of ovarian maturation stages in wild unablated Penaeus monodon. 

    JD Tan, RA Pudadera & EG De Jesus - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    At least five wild-caught Penaeus monodon from various maturation stages (initially classified in vivo as 0, I, II, III, IV, V) were measured, weighed and dissected for histological and histochemical studies. The anterior and posterior parts of the thoracic and abdominal regions of the ovary were sampled and stained with Mallory trichrome, alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff (AB-PAS) and Sudan black.

    Results showed that the ovary is composed of the ovarian wall and its extensions, zone of proliferation, follicle cell layer and oocytes. The proliferating cells are less than 10 µm, have thin rims of cytoplasm, and increase in size as maturation proceeds. Based on histology, the stages were finally classified into groups (1) previtellogenic (stage 0), (2) vitellogenic (stages I and II), (3) cortical rod (stages III and IV), and (4) spent (stage V). The previtellogenic group consists only of perinucleolar oocytes (46-72 µm) which are stained negatively with AB-PAS and Sudan black. Oocytes bigger than 55 µm are enveloped by a single layer of follicle cells. The vitellogenic group is composed mostly of yolky oocytes (121-211 µm) with the following cytoplasmic inclusions: small granules of glycoproteins, medium-size globules of lipoglycoproteins, and few large lipid droplets. The cortical rod group consists mostly of yolky oocytes (288-408 µm) with additional rod-like bodies which contain acid and basic mucopolysaccharides but no lipid. The presence of cortical rods is a characteristic feature of mature penaeid ovaries. The spent group is similar to the previtellogenic group but contains some yolky oocytes, thicker follicle cell layers, or irregularly shaped perinucleolar oocytes. Th GSI ranges of the four groups are 0.899-1.937, 3.099-7.598, 5.631-12.000 and 1.848-2.919, respectively.
  • Conference poster

    Effect of cholesterol in artificial diets for Mediterranean prawns. 

    ML Bianchini - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Mediterranean prawn (Penaeus kerathurus Forsskal) postlarvae (2 months old) were fed ad libitum with previously tested artificial diet (41% D.W., mainly of vegetal origin) supplemented with different percentages of cholesterol (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0%) and fresh bivalve mussel. Growth and survival rates were determined twice.

    Considering supplemented formulas only, data show that: (a) individual weights were higher with 0.1% cholesterol in the diet; (b) survival sharply dropped in the last week of the experiment, in particular with 0.1 and 3.0% cholesterol diets; and (c) with 1.0% cholesterol, mortality and growth counterbalanced giving over-all better results.

    No artificial feed can compete with the natural diet, either for survival rate or for individual growth.
  • Conference poster

    Hepatopancreas cells as monitor cells for the nutritional value of prawn diets in aquaculture 

    G Vogt, FP Pascual & ET Quinitio - In Y Taki, J Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The hepatopancreas is considered to be the central organ of metabolism in decapod Crustacea. It is a system of blind tubules consisting of four cell types. The E-cells at the summits of the tubules develop into R-cells (for resorption of nutrients), F-cells (for production of digestive enzymes) and B-cells (function unknown).

    The ultrastructure of Penaeus monodon R-cells changes largely after starvation and feeding different diets. B-cells show slight reactions, while F- and E-cells are rather constant. Thirteen day-starvation results in a large decrease of the cell size and in a significant reduction of all cell organelles. After seven days starvation and four days refeeding with various extreme diets, the R-cells develop completely different food-specific ultrastructures. A distinct proliferation of the endoplasmic reticulum is characteristic of protein diets. Large fat drops are the main feature after refeeding with cod liver oil. Sucrose feeding results in "empty" cells with only few organelles. The most diversified ultrastructure with fat droplets and a high amount of all cell organelles is obtained by feeding a mixed diet.

    The study indicates that R-cells are very sensitive to the application of different diets. They could be used as monitor cells for the nutritional value and the availability of a diet for prawns. Particularly poor or badly formulated feed could be detected early by electron microscopy. This method may be very helpful for the development of artificial prawn diets in aquaculture, especially if natural sources will be used as food components.
  • Conference poster

    Evaluation of artificial feeds for shrimp (Penaeus monodon) production in brackishwater ponds. 

    NS Tabbu, P Kungvankij, G Taleon, I Potesta & M Bautista - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The experiment was conducted in fifteen 500-m2 brackishwater ponds to determine the response of Penaeus monodon juveniles fed with various artificial diets. Five treatments with three replicates each were: two commercial feeds containing 45% and 40% crude protein (treatments I and II), two experimental diets formulated to contain 35% crude protein (treatments III and IV) and control, without feeding (treatment V). Shrimp were fed twice daily at feeding rates based on shrimp consumption.

    Highest mean harvest weight was attained in treatment I (23.47 g) > III (19.25 g) > II (18.86 g) > IV (11.29 g) > V (9.27 g). Statistical analysis showed that differences in growth were significant at 5% probability level. However, growth in treatments I, II and III are comparable, also growth in treatments II, III and IV. Growth in treatments I, II, III and IV was significantly different from treatment V. Highest mean survival was attained in treatment III (91.82%) > I (88.93%) > II (86.95%) > IV (83.62%) V (82.62%). Statistical analysis showed no significant differences among treatments at 5% probability level.

    Projecting on a hectare basis, mean yield for each treatment was: I (628.37 kg) > II (496.35 kg) per crop in 120 days culture. Good yield was attributed to provision of formulated feeds, use of pumps in addition to tidal change for water exchange and control of predators, and pest eradication through proper pond preparation.
  • Oral presentation

    The response of Penaeus monodon juveniles to varying protein/energy ratios in test diets. 

    M Bautista - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The response of Penaeus monodon juveniles (0.71±0.11 g) to varying protein/energy ratios in test diets was determined. Purified diets consisting of different levels of protein, lipid and carbohydrates were formulated. Two sets of experiments were conducted with the following diet combinations: (1) 30, 30, 50% protein, 5, 10, 15% lipid and 0, 10, 20% carbohydrate and (2) 40, 45, 50% protein, 5% lipid and 20, 25, 30% carbohydrate. Protein and energy ratios ranged from 89-198 mg protein/Kcal while the energy values for all diets were 165-415 Kcal/100 g. The diets were given twice daily at 10% of the body weight.

    Results showed that a two- to three-fold increase was observed in the body weight of prawns fed with diet combinations of 40-50% protein, 5-10% lipid and 20% carbohydrate with energy values of 285-370 Kcal/100 g. Reduction in protein content of the diet from 50 to 40% while maintaining the total energy level (285 Kcal/100 g) resulted in a change in growth that was not significant. An increase in energy level, at constant dietary protein level, resulted in improved utilization of protein and feed conversion efficiency.
  • Conference poster

    Study on the larval rearing of Penaeus merguiensis. 

    N Ruangpanit, S Maneewongsa, T Tattanon & P Kraisingdeja - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Nursing postlarvae of Penaeus merguiensis in the same tank as rearing always results in low survival rates, around 30%. One reason is that stocking density for P1 is too high for postlarvae grown to P20 size. Another reason may be that it is impossible to sufficiently clean a tank containing culture stock. In order to overcome the first constraint and to test whether the second is valid, rearing of nauplii to early postlarval stage was done in one tank, then early postlarvae were moved to another tank for nursing to P20.

    Rearing was done in rectangular, concrete tanks (5 m × 5 m × 2m) of 50 ton capacity, with an initial stocking density of 20-40 nauplii/ℓ. Chaetoceros sp. at a density of 3-4 × 104 cell/ml, or Tetraselmis sp. at 1-3 × 104 cell/ml were fed to zoea stage, then rotifer was given when the larvae metamorphosed to mysis stage. Within 8-10 days, when all of the larvae metamorphosed to postlarval stage, they were transferred to the nursing tank. Postlarval nursing was done in rectangular, concrete tanks with a capacity of 12 or 30 tons. The stocking rate was 12 postlarvae/ℓ in the 12-ton tanks and 8 postlarvae/ℓ in the 30-ton tanks. The early postlarvae were fed constantly with brine shrimp, and the older postlarvae were fed 4-5 times daily with squid meat. Fifty to seventy percent of seawater was exchanged, and siphoning of food remnants was done daily. The postlarvae grew to an intermediate size (1.0-2.5 cm total length) for stocking in grow-out ponds within 12 to 20 days.

    The results of rearing in 50-ton tanks with an initial stocking density of 20-25 postlarvae/ℓ, 25-30 postlarvae/ℓ and 30-40 postlarvae/ℓ produced survival rates of 74.3%, 63.6% and 47.6%, respectively. The survival rate for nursing in 12-ton tanks, with stocking density of 12 postlarvae/ℓ was 85.0% and for 30-ton tanks with stocking density of 8 postlarvae/ℓ was 61.7%. These results seem to indicate that the rearing and nursing of shrimp would be more efficient if carried out in separate tanks.

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