Recent Submissions

  • Oral presentation

    Thermal tolerance of larval greentail prawn Metapenaeus bennettae (Raced and Dall) a comparison with school prawn Metapenaeus macleayi. 

    T Murai - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The thermal tolerance of four larval stages of Metapenaeus bennettae was studied in the laboratory. Critical Thermal Maximum (CTM), One hour Median Lethal Temperature (lhLT50), and Median Resistance Time (MRT) were measured. Moulting rate of larvae and hatching rate of embryos were also monitored to study the delayed effect of thermal stress.

    Thermal tolerance was shown to be strongly dependent on acclimation temperature (TA) at all larval stages,which showed ontogenetic development of thermal resistance. Moulting of larvae was hindered at temperatures (37.2°C for nauplius when TA=25°C) well below lhLT50 (38.1°C for nauplius when TA=25°C). The embryonic stages were more susceptible to thermal stress than the larval stages. The salinity effects were also significant. Nauplius and protozoea stages showed their highest CTM values at the salinity in which they were spawned.When compared with another penaeid M. macleayi (offshore breeder), M. bennettae (estuarine breeder) was found to have higher thermal resistance, but was less adaptive to changes in acclimation temperature.
  • Conference poster

    Recruitment of postlarval penaeid prawns in the Vellar estuary, South India. 

    Ramasamy A. & AP Pandian - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The northern bank of Vellar estuary (Parangipettai, India) is ideal for postlarval penaeid prawn recruitment. The annual recruitment, distribution and the substratum preference of postlarval immigrants at three different stations in the estuary were studied in detail.

    Among the postlarvae of Penaeus, P. (Fenneropenaeus) indicus was dominant followed by P. (Penaeus) monodon, P. (P.) semisulcatus, P. (F.) merguiensis and P. (Melicertus) latisulcatus. In Metapenaeus, postlarvae of M. monoceros were abundant followed by M. dobsoni, M. affinis, M. bre-vicornis and M. lysianassa.

    Two peaks were observed in the postlarval penaeid prawn population. In P (F.) indicus and P. (P.) monodon, the primary peak occurred from January to April and the secondary peak from July to September. In M. monoceros and M. dobsoni, the primary peak was from March to May and the secondary peak from August to September. The postlarvae of P. (F.) indicus, P. (P.) monodon, M. monoceros and M. dobsoni were available throughout the year while the others were seasonal. The distribution of postlarvae in the estuary is related to the type of substratum, salinity and temperature. The postlarval population declined during the northeast monsoon (November-December) and in peak summer (May-June). Their abundance decreased in the lower salinity areas of the upper reaches of the estuary.
  • Oral presentation

    A preliminary economic analysis for extensive and semi-intensive shrimp culture in South Carolina, U.S.A. 

    PA Sandifer & LL Bauer - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    South Carolina has some 28,500 ha of impounded coastal wetlands. These impoundments are remnants of the rice culture industry of the 19th century and are now of interest for waterflow management and possibly aquaculture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the potential for extensive commercial culture of shrimp in salt-marsh impoundments with that for semi-intensive production of shrimp in highland ponds.

    A hypothetical farm consisting of four 8-ha impoundments or ponds was chosen as the basis for the analysis, and it was assumed that only one crop of shrimp could be produced per year. Two alternative strategies for stocking the impoundments were evaluated: option 1, stock by natural recruitment via tide gates; option 2, stock at low density (25,000/ha) with hatchery-reared postlarvae. Highland ponds were to be stocked at a density of 75,000 PL/ha with hatchery-reared animals. Major fixed costs other than land purchase were considered, including renovation of existing impoundments by cross-diking to form 8-ha units and addition of extra tide gates. Estimates of annual and variable costs for postlarvae (where applicable), feed, labor, chemicals, pumping, supplies, vehicle use, mowing, interest, overhead, and miscellaneous items were also included in the analysis. Results indicated that extensive shrimp culture in salt water impoundments is likely to be a break-even or profitable activity for production levels of 90 kg whole shrimp/ha for stocking option 1, while option 2 would require yields of ≥225 kg/ha. In comparison, semi-intensive culture in highland ponds is likely to be successful if yields of ≥ 800 kg/ha are obtained. This preliminary analysis suggests that both extensive and semi-intensive culture of shrimp may be economically feasible in South Carolina, but this potential is as yet un-proven and shrimp aquaculture must be considered a high risk venture in this area.
  • Oral presentation

    The economics of different prawn and shrimp pond culture systems: A comparative analysis 

    D Israel, F Apud & N Franco - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The paper aims to present a comparative economic evaluation of different pond culture systems for prawn (Penaeus monodon) and shrimp (P. indicus and P. merguiensis) using standard economic tools and methods of analysis. The different culture systems include extensive and semi-intensive monoculture of prawns and shrimps and the extensive polyculture of these species with milkfish (Chanos chanos). Data used in the analysis were taken from both SEAFDEC AQD and industry experience. The technical data were gathered from researchers and private sector experiences in prawn and shrimp farming. Financial estimates were determined after the peculiarities of aquaculture vis-a-vis other business ventures in agriculture and industry were taken into consideration.

    The study shows that the extensive monoculture of prawns and the extensive polyculture of prawn with shrimp and milkfish are profitable culture systems. Return on investment (ROI) and payback period for prawn extensive monoculture systems range from 10 to 65% and from 1.4 to 8.6 years, respectively. For polyculture systems, ROI ranges from 8 to 85% and payback period from 1.1 to 10.5 years. The semi-intensive culture of prawn shows moderate results. This is largely due to higher capital requirements for semi-intensive culture as compared to extensive culture. The extensive and semi-intensive monoculture of shrimps on the other hand show poor results, with semi-intensive monoculture registering net losses after all costs are considered.
  • Conference poster

    The production economics of an integrated prawn hatchery-floating nursery project. 

    R Agbayani, N Franco, D Israel, D De La Peña & AT Young - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The paper aims to present an economic evaluation of an integrated prawn (Penaeus monodon) hatchery-floating nursery project using standard economic tools and methods of analysis. The data used in the analysis were taken from SEAFDEC AQD experience at the Batan, Aklan Research Substation hatchery-floating nursery project. The technical bases were gathered from researchers after the peculiarities of aquaculture vis-a-vis other business ventures in agriculture and industry were taken into consideration.

    The study shows that an integrated hatchery-floating nursery project is a profitable culture system. The rate of return on investment for this integrated project ranges from 29 to 47% while payback period ranges from 1.8 to 2.6 years. A separate economic analysis of a hatchery project and a floating nursery was also undertaken to determine the profitability of independently operating each subsystem. The analysis shows better results for the floating nursery subsystem as compared to the hatchery subsystem. Return on investment and payback period for the floating nursery range from 23 to 78% and 1 to 3 years, respectively, while those for the hatchery range from 20 to 36% and 2.3 to 3.7 years, respectively.
  • Oral presentation

    Effect of various levels of squid protein on growth and some biochemical parameters of Penaeus japonicus juveniles. 

    LC Suarez, J Guillaume & AV Wormhoudt - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    An unknown growth factor previously suspected in squid meal was found in the protein fraction of squid (Loligo vulgaris). It is clearly different from hydro-alcohol-soluble feed attractants that are also present in squid meal. This squid protein fraction (SPF) improves the growth of Penaeus japonicus juveniles when added either in a semi-purified or in a more complex mixed diet. This growth-promoting effect does not seem to be related to the amino acid composition of SPF. In order to obtain more information on its action, several levels (1.5 to 16.0%) of SPF were added to a mixed diet. The diets were isoproteic (59% D.M.), isolipidic (8.5% D.M.), supplemented with vitamins, cholesterol, glucosamine, etc. They were fed as wet pellets to 3 replicates of 15 shrimp; blue mussel was used as the control. The growth of shrimp increased with the SPF level and attained a plateau above 6%. Body weight was significantly higher than that of the control group at this level. RNA content and RNA:DNA ratio increased with the SPF level indicating that growth was improved more by hypertrophy than by hyperplasy of the cells.

    The hepatosomatic ratio remained unchanged. The assay of two digestive enzymes, proteases and amylases, showed no clear effect of SPF on protease or amylase activities. More experiments are needed to explain the effect of the unknown growth factor of SPF.
  • Oral presentation

    Description of the embryonic stages of Penaeus notialis and the influence of some abiotic factors on the species. 

    I Fernandez & M Oliva - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The embryonic development of the shrimp Penaeus notialis Farfante, 1967 is studied. The duration from spawning to hatching of the nauplii was 14-16 hr. As soon as spawning occurs, a sequence of transformations is observed in the characteristic cell mitosis up to the formation of the embryo which breaks the membrane and emerges as the first naupliar stage. The process of development is very similar to other penaeids and the duration of each stage is characteristic of the species. The influence of salinity and pH on spawning, hatching rate and survival, and the optimal values for each factor were determined.
  • Oral presentation

    Induction to ovary maturation by ablation in the pink shrimp Penaeus notialis. 

    L Ramos - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    A partial unilateral ablation was carried out on immature females of the pink shrimp Penaeus notialis. They were maintained in 1,600 ℓ asbestos-cement tanks together with apparently mature males, not submitted to treatment, at a ratio of 2 females: 1 male. A quick development of the ovary was attained, which did not present significant differences in average diameter of the ovocytes in the anterior, median, and posterior lobes, and with similar histological characteristics to those described for naturally mature females. Viable spawnings were obtained three days after the treatment and onwards. The larvae obtained showed normal activity and development.
  • Conference paper

    A review of maturation and reproduction in closed thelycum penaeids 

    JH Primavera - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Commercially important penaeids of the closed thelycum group belong to five subgenera of the genus Penaeus — Penaeus, Fenneropenaeus, Marsupenaeus and Melicertus that are almost exclusively Indo-West Pacific and Farfantepenaeus that is predominantly Western Atlantic. Since the ablation of Penaeus duorarum more than a decade ago, the first for any penaeid, around 23 species have been matured in captivity, 17 of them belonging to the closed thelycum subgenera (P. aztecus, P. brasiliensis, P. californiensis, P. duorarum, P. esculentus, P. indicus, P. japonicus, P. kerathurus, P. latisulcatus, P. merguiensis, P. monodon, P. notialis, P. orientalis, P. paulensis, P. penicillatus, P. plebejus, and P. semisulcatus).

    The complete spectrum of controlled reproduction in penaeids covers maturation, spawning, hatching of eggs into viable larvae, and the production of postlarvae to constitute the next batch of broodstock. The full closing of the cycle has been achieved in at least six closed thelycum species whereas gaps, e.g. inability of mature females to spawn or nonhatching of eggs, remain for the others.

    Spawners or mature females used in commercial hatcheries and research laboratories are either wild-caught or matured in captivity with human control ranging from nil to a regular closing of the cycle. Wild spawners may be spawned directly after capture and transport or subjected to environmental manipulation, e.g. thermal control to induce or inhibit spawning. Females matured in captivity may come from wild broodstock (adults and subadults caught from estuaries or "sourced" by trawlers from offshore waters) or captive (pond- or tank-reared) broodstock. Introduced or exotic penaeid species must depend on a pond- or tank-reared broodstock whereas indigenous prawns and shrimps may be constituted from wild or captive broodstock.

    There are three basic approaches employed singly or in combination to induce ovarian maturation in penaeids — endocrine, dietary or nutritional and environmental. Endocrine manipulation has so far been synonymous with unilateral eyestalk ablation, a technique with far-reaching impact on penaeid aquaculture. Closed thelycum penaeids may be classified into those that require ablation in order to mature and those that do not. To a third group belong species that have been experimentally induced to mature with and without ablation.

    Diets for maturation include fresh and frozen animal sources (mussel, clam, oyster, squid, marine worms, shrimps, fish) and formulated pellets given in any combination. The choice of marine worms and mollusks is based on their high levels of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid, the dominant fatty acids found in mature ovaries and testes. Environmental parameters studied in relation to maturation include light (intensity, quality and photoperiod), temperature, salinity and pH.

    Although a regular closing of the cycle has been achieved for some, the state-of-the-art for most penaeids is the successful production of larvae and postlarvae from either wild spawners or wild immature/spent females matured/rematured in captivity. The improvement of reproductive performance including larval quality from captive broodstock remains a major area for future research and includes the determination of minimum age and size for maturation. The complete description of the nutritional and environmental requirements for maturation should lead to the development of alternatives to ablation such as photoperiod manipulation or the use of reproductive hormones.

    The present focus on characterizing the physicochemical and dietary requirements for maturation should be extended to other phases of reproduction: mating, spawning, fertilization and hatching. Studies on biology (molting, mating, fertilization including the cortical reaction) and biochemistry (maturation stages) provide baseline information for designing maturation tanks and formulating broodstock pellets. Investigations of wild stocks complement laboratory studies in elucidating the interrelationships among molting, mating, maturation and spawning.

    Manual spermatophore transfer is being developed to solve the problem of nonmating in closed (and open) thelycum species. This technique will also be useful in future hybridization work, together with in vitro fertilization.
  • Conference paper

    Extensive and semi-intensive culture of prawn and shrimp in the Philippines 

    FD Apud - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Various farming systems for prawn and shrimp are compared, with emphasis on the extensive and semi-intensive culture of tiger prawn Penaeus monodon and white shrimp Penaeus indicus in monoculture or in polyculture with milkfish (Chanos chanos). The bases of comparison include pond design characteristics, stocking density, food supply, water management, average production, technical, and other major input requirements. Common factors that may influence production for each system are also discussed.

    It is observed that prawn and shrimp production has been mainly characterized by the extensive system. Of the 200,000 ha of brackishwater fishponds in the Philippines, about 25% (50,000 ha) are stocked with prawns and shrimps in monoculture or in polyculture with milkfish. Only a relatively small portion (less than 500 ha) of the area is utilized for semi-intensive culture. The dramatic increase in area utilization for extensive prawn production in recent years can be attributed to high market demand, increased hatchery-bred fry production, minimum technical requirements, and lower production cost and risks.

    The trend towards intensification among existing large fishfarms is hampered by rising capital costs for fishpond improvement and increasing operational expense and risks. However, intensification is gaining some attention and progress in limited areas, primarily to maximize utilization and production to avoid high investment cost of land for expansion. Further development and progress in the industry will be dependent on such factors as market price, availability of fry and feed at reasonable cost, supply of trained technicians, technical problems, financial situation, and economic viability of the operation.
  • Book | Conference publication

    Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, Iloilo City, Philippines, 4-7 December 1984 

    Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.) - 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Abstracts of the 78 papers presented at the conference are cited individually.
  • Conference paper

    A review of the diseases of cultured penaeid shrimps and prawns with emphasis on recent discoveries and developments. 

    DV Lightner - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The development of the commercial culture of penaeid shrimps and prawns has been accompanied by the occurrence of diseases of infectious and noninfectious etiologies. Many of the important penaeid diseases are caused by organisms that are part of the normal microflora and fauna of penaeids. These organisms are opportunistic pathogens that cause disease only under conditions that favor them over the host. Many organisms in this category are ubiquitous, and most have been recognized and/or reported from each of the major penaeid culture areas of the world. Included among this category of pathogens are the filamentous bacteria Leucothrix mucor, Flexibacter sp. and Cytophaga sp. (agents of filamentous gill and surface fouling diseases); the peritrich protozoans Zoothamnium sp., Epistylis sp., and Vorticella sp. (surface epibionts that cause protozoan gill disease and surface fouling diseases), the invasive bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus (agents of various bacterial disease syndromes); and the fungi Lagenidium callinectes, Sirolpidium sp., and Fusarium solani (agents of the most common fungus diseases of penaeids).

    Among the most important disease-causing agents are the penaeid viruses. These penaeid viruses may once have been limited in their geographic distribution in wild stocks, but they have become widespread in penaeid culture facilities. With the advent of commercial penaeid hatcheries, the shipment of broodstock and postlarvae from these culture facilities to others in different geographic regions has often resulted in the spread of these agents outside their normal range in wild populations. Included in this category of the penaeid viruses are the baculoviruses: Baculovirus penaei (BP), P. monodon baculovirus (MBV), baculoviral midgut gland necrosis virus (BMN); the hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus (HPV); the probable picornavirus infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), and a reo-like virus in P. japonicus.

    The final group of important diseases of cultured penaeids are the nutritional, physical, and toxic disease syndromes. The ascorbic acid deficiency syndrome called "black death" is the best understood nutritional disease of penaeids. Among the physical diseases occurring in penaeid culture, gas bubble disease and tail cramp are probably the most common. Important toxic disease syndromes include aflatoxicosis and red disease (which may be due to mycotoxins); hemocytic enteritis (due to certain species of filamentous blue-green algae, especially Schizothrix calcicola) and toxic syndromes due to toxic algal blooms.

    There are five areas of research that should receive emphasis in the next several years in penaeid disease research: 1) Appropriately equipped laboratories in each of the major penaeid culture areas should identify and catalog those diseases occurring in culture facilities in their region; 2) Penaeid diagnostic laboratories should use, or strive to develop for general use, "standardized" diagnostic procedures whenever possible, especially for highly infectious agents such as the penaeid viruses; 3) Penaeid cell culture methods for primary cultures or cell lines must be developed to aid in the development of much needed rapid, sensitive diagnostic tests for the penaeid viruses; 4) Improved methods of disease prevention, control, or chemotherapy are needed for many of the penaeid diseases now adversely affecting the penaeid culture industry; and 5) Approval is needed from those government agencies (such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency) for the drugs and chemicals used as chemotherapeutics in penaeid culture that may pose a health risk to humans.
  • Conference paper

    Economics of shrimp culture in Asia. 

    Y Hirasawa - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    There is a common belief that the demand for shrimp is so strong that the future of shrimp culture is very bright. However, there is a problem here. The Japanese market for shrimp has been expanding over the past 20 years, and the amount of imported shrimp has reached its ceiling. Since 1980, the amount imported has been 160,000 tons with some allowance. It will be rather difficult to exceed this level with the present price. It is very clear that if imports of shrimp rise above this level, inventory will rapidly increase and price will go down severely. Considering this situation, it is very important to reduce the cost of cultured shrimp because of severe competition in the market.

    Various shrimp culture systems in Japan and Southeast Asia are described. They range from extensive to intensive systems. An analysis of their economics reveals some interesting facts. The downward trend of the rate of cost per kilogram in intensive culture is very slow compared to those in extensive and semi-intensive culture while the productivity is rising. This is because in intensive pond culture, the ratio of variable cost to total cost is rather high and variable cost does not change as the productivity rises. In the case of extensive pond culture, the ratio of fixed cost to total cost is rather high, so the decrease in fixed cost per kilogram is very high in accordance with the rise of productivity. Therefore, by simply increasing the productivity slightly, the extensive pond can cut its production cost significantly. If the price of shrimp in the market goes down, the intensive pond system will face extinction since it is difficult to cut production cost.

    Cost forecast for cultured shrimp seems to indicate that extensive and semi-intensive methods will become dominant in the Asian region. Presently, productivity of these systems are low but can be greatly improved by using the "continuing method" and "circulating method" of pond management. The continuing method calls for stocking of different-sized shrimp which will be harvested on a staggered basis. The circulating method employs various sizes of compartments and the stock is moved from densely stocked small compartments to progressively larger grow-out ponds.

    There has been a rapid expansion of tiger shrimp culture in Taiwan and Southeast Asia recently for the following reasons: (1) high growth rate; (2) high price and broad market; (3) development of technology for hatching and rearing of seedling; and (4) comparative ease with which technical help in culture is obtained from Taiwan and Japan. However, there is a significant demerit. It is not easy in some regions to obtain seedling due to their high price. The supply of seedling of tiger shrimp is absolutely insufficient because of the shortage of mature shrimp. On the other hand, it is easy to get white shrimp seedling at a low price in these regions. In addition to this, the growth rate of white shrimp is similar up to a body length of 12-13 cm in 80-90 days rearing. Cheap cost and a large supply of seedling will easily compensate for the small size. It is therefore important to expand white shrimp culture in Asia. The bright future of white shrimp due to its low production cost is presented in this paper with some data and calculations.
  • Conference paper

    Overview of penaeid shrimp culture in Asia. 

    P Kungvankij - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Marine shrimp farming is a century-old practice in some Asian countries. Past sluggish development of the industry is mainly due to the inadequacy of hatchery technology resulting in inconsistent and insufficient supply of shrimp fry hence offsetting large scale development of the industry. Recent success in hatchery techniques coupled with high market demand have generated world-wide interest in developing shrimp farms in Asia. This paper attempts to make an in-depth review of the various aspects confronting the development and expansion of the shrimp farming industry.

    The cultural significance of the various penaeid shrimps cultivated in Asia (Penaeus monodon, P. japonicus, P. indicus, P. merguiensis and P. orientalis) is critically reviewed in relation to other subtropical species such as P. stylirostris and P. van-namei successfully cultivated in South America. The major constraints confronting large scale cultivation of P. monodon and other commonly important species are discussed and research gaps outlined. Present status of hatchery techniques is discussed and the need for standardization of viable techniques for technology packaging and verification is highlighted to ensure reliable source of seed supply. The various problems in hatchery development, including development of artificial larval feeds, are emphasized. This paper attempts to compare the technological and financial inputs in high technology with traditional farming practices in the region. The grow-out technology in relation to farming intensity and level of investment are outlined with special reference to the socio-economic condition in Asia. The need to develop viable and appropriate shrimp farming technology within the technical and financial capabilities of the rural small shrimp growers is discussed.
  • Conference paper

    Economics of penaeid culture in the Americas. 

    W Griffin, A Lawrence & M Johns - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Shrimp culture in the Americas began in the early 1970's and has experienced rapid growth in some Latin American countries. Currently, Latin America produces one-third of all cultured shrimp with Ecuador as the leading country in the world. Availability of postlarvae and a favorable year-round climate have been the most important factors causing a "Gold Rush" expansion in Ecuador. The long-term potential for shrimp mariculture in Latin America is promising. Projections for 1990 production of cultured shrimp by Latin American countries are between 60,000-70,000 metric tons (mt). Shrimp culture in the United States has begun with the entry of a few small firms.

    In this paper, investment and production costs are examined for a semi-intensive farm that purchases postlarvae and operates in the southern United States. Total investment decreases as pond size increases for a given size facility. Investment per kilogram of annual average production ranges from just under US $20.00 for a 20-surface ha farm using 2-ha ponds to $80.00 for a 400-ha system using 20-ha ponds. Operation costs per kilogram decline as the size of the system and the size of the ponds increase. It costs $10.10 to produce one kilogram of shrimp on a 20-surface ha farm using 2-ha ponds compared to $5.50 on a 400-surface ha farm using 20-ha ponds.

    In comparing the operation of a semi-intensive 200-ha farm in Ecuador with a similar farm in the United States, costs of production were $3.12 and $5.83 per kilogram, respectively. The after-tax internal rate of return (IRR) was 59% in Ecuador and 21% in the United States. These IRR's were calculated under the assumption that production, costs and prices received are constant over the investment period (10 years) considered. When risk and timing of investment are considered, these IRR's are reduced.
  • Conference paper

    Intensive culture and feed development in Penaeus japonicus. 

    K Shigueno - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The economic feasibility of shrimp culture with high productivity of over 10 ton/ha/crop is still under evaluation in some research institutes. However, there is one exception. In a limited area in Japan, there are 63 tanks that are actually in operation and are commercially productive. One of the trials to grow Penaeus japonicus is herewith introduced to represent the intensive culture of penaeid shrimp. Tank design, feeding, growth, survival, water management, cost analysis and disease are described. In addition, an illustration of successful semi-intensive culture in earthen ponds is shown to help explain how to intensify and stabilize production.
  • Oral presentation

    Advances in shrimp culture in China 

    R Liu - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Shrimp experimental ecology studies and the shrimp farming industry in China developed rapidly in the 1970's, and great strides have been made in the mass production of shrimp fry and the growing-out of marketable size shrimp since 1978. The total production of artificially reared shrimp fry and cultivated shrimp increased dramatically in the last few years.

    The improvement of water quality management and feed supply in larval rearing have resulted in increased production of shrimp fry up to 100,000-200,000 or even 300,000 fry/m3. Advances in the nutritional physiology and biochemistry of the digestive enzymes of juvenile and adolescent shrimp have enabled us to develop different kinds of for mulated feeds with high efficiency and low cost. Techniques for the transplantation and propagation of small benthic crustaceans (e.g. Corophium spp.) or polychaetes (e.g. Nereis spp.) to increase the benthos biomass for natural food of juvenile shrimp in nursery ponds have been developed and successfully practised. Improvement of culture techniques including shrimp pond management, has decreased the mortality of juvenile and young shrimp and increased yields of cultivated shrimp in the country. Highest production of 9,000 kg/ha has been achieved in the semi-intensive culture pond.
  • Conference poster

    Seasonal abundance of Penaeid prawn seed in the Ennore estuary, Madras in relation to hydrography and lunar phase. 

    S Vasudevan & T Subramoniam - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    An estimate of seed resources in the coastline, estuarine, and backwater bodies is an important prerequisite for developing prawn farming. A one-year (1983) survey on penaeid seed, based on tide and lunar periodicity, indicates the following species: Metapenaeus dobsoni, Penaeus indicus, P. japonicus, M. monoceros, P. semisulcatus and P. monodon in order of their abundance. P. indicus and P. japonicus are predominant in February and March (77.5 and 82.06% of total seed, respectively) when the average salinity ranges from 33.6 to 35.1 ppt followed by M. dobsoni. A second peak of P. indicus is observed in June when M. dobsoni showed its highest peak (47.35%) with continued abundance up to December.

    During the northeast monsoon, when the average salinity fell to a lower range of 19.9 to 24.6 ppt, P. monodon and M. monoceros showed moderate abundance. As the site chosen is very near the bar mouth, most of the seed collected were postlarvae. In Penaeus and Metapenaeus genera, total size range is 7-15 mm and 3-4 mm, respectively. Afternoon collections showed greater abundance followed by forenoon and night collections. Low tide and Full Moon collections showed greater abundance than those made during high tide and New Moon. Differences in seasonality may reflect breeding intensity of the respective prawn species in the sea. Variations in hydrographic features may also significantly contribute to seasonal abundance. A strong correlation between salinity and seed abundance is seen. The seed potential of these prawns in Ennore estuary is discussed.
  • Oral presentation

    Imperatives for the future development of prawn culture in the Cochin backwater system (Kerala, India). 

    D Stephen - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    A traditional system of prawn culture practised in the Cochin Backwater System, the largest backwater system in Kerala State, has an estimated yield of 4,000 tons from about 4,500 ha. Governmental investments to encourage prawn production on a scientific basis continue to grow with the dual objective of improving the socio-economic conditions of fisherfolks and augmenting prawn exports. A geographic study of land and water uses and an assessment of environmental impact of these uses point to basic incompatibilities of city expansion and semi-intensive prawn culture. Population growth, urban expansion and industrial development projections for Cochin City and its surrounding areas support the view that water quality will deteriorate further making culture of prawns for export a difficult proposition. Functioning horizontal-communications between city and fisheries planning units are essential as are improvements in environmental protection than presently evident. Attention is directed towards examining other options for improving socio-economic conditions of fisherfolks and increasing prawn production and developing public policy for protecting prawn culture areas elsewhere.
  • Oral presentation

    Factors affecting maturation and spawning of Penaeus esculentus in the laboratory. 

    PJ Crocos - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Adult tiger prawns Penaeus esculentus were held in laboratory tanks under varying conditions of tank size, density, temperature and photoperiod for assessment of ovarian maturation and spawning. Both eyestalk ablated and intact females were studied. Maturation and spawning of intact females was favored by conditions of warm temperature (26°C) and long days (14.5 hr), whereas ovary maturation did not occur at lower temperature (20°C) and short days (12 hr). Tank size was a critical factor with intact females as maturation and spawning required a large tank (4 m2). Spawning did not occur in small tanks (1 m2) despite ideal temperature and photoperiod conditions. Unilaterally ablated females matured and spawned under both short day-cold temperature conditions and in small tanks, but the success rate was greater under long day-warm temperature conditions in large tanks. Intact females required 40-60 days before onset of ovary maturation, whereas ablated females showed maturation to ovary stage III approximately 20 days after ablation. Mating success was severely limited under small tank conditions but occurred normally in the large tanks.

View more