Research on crustaceans
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Crustacean research at the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department during the last three years focused mostly on the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Studies were done along six problem areas: (1) developing spawning techniques for captive broodstock, (2) defining physico-chemical levels tolerable by larvae or postlarvae, (3) finding alternative feeds or fertilizers for extensive culture, (4) reducing the cost and evaluating the quality of formulated feeds for semiintensive culture, (5) preventing and controlling disease, and (6) documenting the chemicals used in shrimp culture and their effects on the environment. To reduce feed costs, substitutes for expensive feed components were screened and the specific nutrient requirements of tiger shrimp during culture were determined. A few studies were made on other crustaceans. The vitellogenin levels during maturation of the white shrimp P. indicus were measured. The digestibility of feedstuffs was also tested in the white shrimp. Culture techniques are being developed for the mudcrab Scylla serrata in ponds, pens, and cages.
Parado-Estepa F. D. (1995). Research on crustaceans. In T. U. Bagarinao & E. E. C. Flores (Eds.), Towards Sustainable Aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994 (pp. 187-198). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department.
PublisherSEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
Tolerance; Disease control; Chemical compounds; Feed composition; Disinfectants; Fertilizers; Breeding; Nutritional requirements; Environmental effects; Research; Brood stocks; Drugs; Crustacean larvae; Feed; Shrimp culture; Crustacean culture; Pond culture; Spawning; Crab culture; Aquaculture economics; Hatcheries; Digestibility; Pesticides; Cage culture; Prophylaxis; Feeding experiments; Penaeus monodon; Fenneropenaeus indicus; Scylla serrata; Giant tiger prawn; Indian white prawn; Philippines
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ArticleC Lim, P Suraniranat & RR Platon -
Kalikasan, The Philippine Journal of Biology, 1979 - University of the Philippines, Los BañosPenaeus monodon postlarvae with an average weight of 15.61 mg each were fed fresh brown mussel meat and artificial diets containing casein, shrimp meal, squid meal and Spirulina as protein sources at a daily rate of 20 per cent of their biomass for 10 days. Results indicate that squid meal is best for growth based on weight gain, diet conversion, and protein efficiency ratio. Fresh brown mussel meat was essentiallly comparable to shrimp meal for growth but was inferior based on protein efficiency ratio and survival rate. Both squid meal and shrimp meal appeared to be good protein sources for P. monodon postlarvae.
Conference paperPC Liong, HB Hanafi, ZO Merican & G Nagaraj - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture DepartmentMalaysia is a fish-consuming country with fish representing 60% of a total animal protein intake. At an annual per capita consumption of 32 kg some 560 000 mt of fish is required for the projected of 17.5 million people in year 2000. Coastal marine capture fisheries, the mainstay of Malaysia's fishsupply, has not shown any increase in landings over the last few years. In fact in 1985 there was a decline of 3.7% compared to 1984 fish landings. This declining contribution of marine fisheries is compensated by an increase in aquaculture production. In 1985, aquaculture contributed 51 709 mt to the total fish supply. This represents 10% of the total fish landings of 514 570 mt or 13% of total table (edible) fish landings. Malaysia does not have a long standing aquaculture tradition unlike its neighbours in the Indo-Pacific. Even then, the industry has seen rapid growth in the last few years. Today there are 19 species of finfishes, crustaceans and shellfish cultured in the country. The main freshwater fish species bred and cultured are bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Indonesian carp (Punctius gonionotus), catfish (Clarias macrocephalus and Pangasius spp), snakefish gourami (Trichogaster pectoralis) and tilapia (mainly Oreochromis niloticus). Marine finfishes bred and cultured are sea bass (Lates calcarifer), grouper (Epinephelus sp.) and snapper (Lutjanus johni). Penaeus monodon is the dominant marine prawn species bred and cultured but culture of P. merguiensis is receiving considerable interest. Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the only freshwater prawn cultured commercially. Molluscs cultured are the blood clam (Anadara granosa) and the green mussel (Perna viridis). In 1985, blood clam and mussel culture accounted for 87% of all aquaculture production of Malaysia, freshwater fish 12%, floating cage culture of marine fish 0.7% and brackishwater pond culture 0.3%. In terms of value blood clam and mussels represented 30% (M$15M) of total value (M$49.5M), freshwater fish 57% (M$28M),cage culture of marine fin fishes 7% (M$3.4M),and brackishwater pond production 6% (M$2.1M). Aquaculture in Malaysia has considerable growth potential. It is projected that 22 000 ha of mangrove will be opened by the year 2000 for shrimp culture. Some 330 000 m2 of protected coastal waters have been identified for cage culture. Some 6500 rafts can considerably expand the present capacity. In freshwater culture about 8000 ha of land and 17 500 ha of mining pools can be developed while 200 000 ha of artificial lakes and impoundments for freshwater fish cage culture are available. Yet such development is not without constraints. Freshwater finfish culture is hampered by lack of good quality broodstock. There is also a limited market for freshwater finfishes. Marine finfish culture is limited by lack of fingerlings and good quality compounded diet to replace trash fish which is deteriorating in quality and quantity. Marine prawn culture is heavily dependent on wild spawners, the supply unpredictable and inadequate. Acid sulfate soil continues to cause the deterioration of brackishwater ponds. Cockles and mussels can be sold to export markets only if they meet specific quality standards.
Nursery culture of mud crab Scylla serrata fed diets supplemented with trytophan at two stocking densities VR Alava, MA Lucero, JD Sumile & FD Parado-Estepa - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterCannibalism has been recognized as one of the major problems in crab culture. The use of dietary tryptophan (TRP) that has been reported to reduce cannibalism in crabs under laboratory conditions was verified in pond nursery culture at two stocking densities. The first phase used hatchery-produced early crab instar. After 3-4 weeks, survivors were sorted and the small size crabs were further reared in the second phase. Crabs were stocked in 12-m2 net cages installed in brackishwater pond and fed three times daily at 0830, 1300 and 1630 h. The feeding scheme used was a combination of mussel meat (M) and formulated diet (FD) at 30:70 ratio. The original FD contained 45% crude protein (used in Experiment 1, 2 and 3) that was lowered to 40% crude protein in the new basal diet used in the succeeding experiment. The two TRP-supplemented diets had 0.5% and 0.7% TRP levels. Results showed that the TRP-supplemented feeds did not give consistent results in terms of growth and feed conversion ratio, indicating that the original basal diet (0.4% TRP and 45% crude protein) or the new basal diet (0.4% TRP and 40% crude protein) were sufficient to be used together with mussel meat as feed for crab juveniles. Higher survival rates were obtained at 50 m-2 (phase 1) and 10 m-2 (phase 2) than at 30 m-2 and 5 m-2 stocking density, respectively. All trial runs produced positive returns on investment.