Studies on the chemical control of luminous bacteria Vibrio harveyi and V. splendidus isolated from diseased Penaeus monodon larvae and rearing water
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The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of 24 drugs for luminous bacteria Vibrio harveyi and V. splendidus were determined. Only chloramphenicol, sodium nifurstyrenate and the nitrofurans (furazolidone, nitrofurazone, nitrofurantoin and Prefuran) showed relatively low MICs and MBCs (<25 µg/ml-1). The bacteria showed varied responses to chloramphenicol and Prefuran and low sensitivity to oxytetracycline. Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and Prefuran are commonly used in shrimp hatcheries. Shrimp larvae showed high survival rates and active swimming movement after 24 h exposure to in vivo bactericidal doses of chloramphenicol, Furacin, nitrofurantoin (protozoa only), oxytetracycline (nauplius only), Prefuran (mysis only) and sodium nifurstyrenate, but the drugs caused deformities in the carapace, rostrum, and setae. Chemical control of luminous vibriosis among shrimp larvae appears limited, based on the efficacy of existing and readily available drugs, because of the possible development of resistant strains of bacteria and the limited tolerance of the shrimp larvae to the drugs.
CitationBaticados, M. C. L., Lavilla-Pitogo, C. R., Cruz-Lacierda, E. R., de la Peña, L. D., & Suñaz, N. A. (1990). Studies on the chemical control of luminous bacteria Vibrio harveyi and V. splendidus isolated from diseased Penaeus monodon larvae and rearing water.
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ArticleFrom January 1990 to June 1993, 59% of the total juvenile to adult shrimp (Penaeus monodon) submitted for diagnosis at the Fish Health Section of the Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines were diagnosed to have red disease syndrome. Red disease syndrome is characterized by the reddening of the shrimp body. The aetiology of the disease is unknown. This paper reports for the first time the isolation of four Vibrio phenotypes, namely, Vibrio harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus, V. fluuialis and Vibrio sp. from shrimps with red disease. Pathogenicity test shows that injection with V. parahaemolyticus and V. harveyi can produce the characteristic red discoloration in healthy shrimp.
Conference paperMG Bondad-Reantaso - In RV Pakingking Jr., EGT de Jesus-Ayson & BO Acosta (Eds.), Addressing Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) and Other Transboundary Diseases for Improved Aquatic … Diseases for Improved Aquatic Animal Health in Southeast Asia, 22-24 February 2016, Makati City, Philippines, 2016 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations Agricultural Outlook 2015-2024 reported that fisheries production worldwide is projected to expand by 19% between the 2012-14 base period and 2024, to reach 191 million metric tons (MT) and the main driver of this increase will be aquaculture, which is expected to reach 96 million MT by 2024, 38% higher than the base period (average 2012-14) level. Among the 7 key uncertainties that affect gains in productivity, the potential of animal disease outbreaks to affect aquaculture production and subsequently domestic and international markets are once again highlighted, although for the first time in this outlook. Another milestone document, the Blue frontiers: managing the environmental costs of aquaculture identified a number of fish health issues, including increased risk of the spread of pathogens and diseases with intensification, through increased movement of aquatic animals, inter-regional trade and introduction of new species and new strains, and through the use of trash fish or live feed; concerns on residues and development of drug resistant pathogens brought about by the abuse on the use antimicrobials and other veterinary drugs; limited availability of vaccines; environmental stressors that compromise the immune system; difficulties faced by developing countries in implementing international standards; and the need for legislation, enforcement and capacity building. The issues identified then and now are almost the same. Addressing animal health issues in aquaculture is very challenging because the sector is highly complex (with a wide range of diversity in terms of species, systems, practices and environment, each presenting different risks), its fluid environment, and the transboundary nature where fish is considered as one of the most traded commodity, aquatic animals require more attention in order to monitor their health: they are not visible except in tank holding conditions; they live in a complex and dynamic environment and feed consumption and mortalities are hidden under water. This paper looks at the status of a newly emerging disease of cultured shrimp, acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), which has been recognized as the most important non-viral disease threat to cultured shrimp. In particular, this paper presents the highlights of the International Technical Seminar/Workshop: EMS/AHPND: Government, Scientist and Farmer Responses held from 22-24 June 2015 in Panama City, Panama, which was organized under the auspices of an FAO inter-regional project TCP/INT/3502: Reducing and Managing the Risks of AHPND of Cultured Shrimp, being participated by 11 countries, namely: Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama and Peru from Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region and India, Iran, the Philippines and Sri Lanka from the Asian region. The Panama EMS/AHPND June 2015 event aimed to provide a platform to improve the understanding of the disease through the lens of governments, scientists and producers and collectively generate practical management and control measures. More than 100 stakeholders from 21 countries representing the government, academe and producer sectors participated in the event. The highlights contain the latest available information at that time (June 2015) about AHPND including the current state of knowledge about the causative agent, the host and geographical distribution, detection methods, risk factors, management and actions of regional and international organizations.
Conference paperY Wong & J Jiang - In RV Pakingking Jr., EGT de Jesus-Ayson & BO Acosta (Eds.), Addressing Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) and Other Transboundary Diseases for Improved Aquatic … Diseases for Improved Aquatic Animal Health in Southeast Asia, 22-24 February 2016, Makati City, Philippines, 2016 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterSingapore has a small shrimp farming industry with approximately 54 metric tons (MT) of shrimps produced in one year from both land and coastal farms. There is also one shrimp farm producing broodstock for export. Singapore has the capability to diagnose acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) through histopathology and the isolation of its causal agent which is Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for AHPND detection in shrimp is currently being undertaken to further strengthen its laboratory and diagnostic capacity. Notably, Singapore is still AHPND-free. On the contrary, white spot disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a disease of concern as it affects the trade for ornamental crustaceans. Singapore has an active surveillance program for WSSV and other transboundary pathogens of penaeid shrimps. Positive detections would be followed by movement controls and stamping out protocols.