Broodstock management and seed production of tilapia and carp
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Bighead (Aristichthys nobilis) and silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) carps were reared in ponds, pens and floating cages in Laguna Lake until maturity. Spontaneous gonadal maturation and rematuration of carp broodstock occurred within 2-2.5 years with average weight of 3-4 kg. Under lake conditions, broodstock were not given supplemental feeds. Induced spawning of gravid females was done by intraperitoneal injections using HCG combined with either common carp pituitary homogenates or LHRH-A. Stripping and dry-fertilization of eggs were done 6-8 hr after the final injection. Eggs were incubated in water containing 300-500 ppm Total Hardness. Fertilization and hatching rates were 23-88% and 7-36%, respectively. Post-larval carps were reared in tanks and fine-meshed nylon net cages installed in manured ponds. Tank-reared post-larvae were fed with Brachionus plicatilis and subsequently with Moina macrocopa in combination with powered formulated feeds containing 40% crude protein. Fry were harvested and stocked in nursery cages after 30-45 days of rearing in tanks. Four-month old 50-100 g tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) stocked in hapa net cages, tanks or ponds were used for breeding. Egg and fry production was significantly high at 4 females/m2 stocking density Different sex ratios, however, did not affect fry production. Spawning frequency and total growth of broodstock was highest in fry fed formulated diets containing 50% crude protein. Harvesting of fry was done every 15 days during summer months and every 21 days during cold months. Fry were reared in tanks and hapa cages and fed diets containing 35% crude protein. Supplemental feeding in the lake was suspended when productivity reached 3 gC/m2 /day.
Fermin, A. C. (1988). Broodstock management and seed production of tilapia and carp. In J. V. Juario & L. V. Benitez (Eds.), Perspectives in Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Japan: Contributions of the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department. Proceedings of the Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines. (pp. 211-230). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: SEAFDEC, Aquaculture Department. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/132
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Stocking density; Sex ratio; Freshwater lakes; Pond culture; Incubation; Induced breeding; Spawning; Freshwater fish; Sex hormones; Feed composition; Rearing; Fecundity; Breeding; Sexual maturity; Cage culture; Tanks; Feeding experiments; Gonads; Brood stocks; Hatching; Aquaculture techniques; Fish culture; Hypophthalmichthys molitrix; Aristichthys nobilis; Brachionus plicatilis; Moina macrocopa; Oreochromis niloticus; Philippines, Luzon I., Laguna de Bay L.
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Conference paperIbA Kechik - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture in Malaysia is experiencing rapid growth. Total production in 1992 amounted to 79,699 tons valued at RM 207.4 million. These figures are 23% and 25% higher than the previous year's. Semi-culture of the cockle Anadara granosa was still predominant, contributing about 70% of the total output. Culture and production of the oyster Crassostrea iredalei is still insignificant. Sea bass Lates calcarifer constituted over 80% of the production from marine cages. Cage culture of grouper Epinephelus sp., snapper Lutjanus sp. and pompano Trachinotus blochii were also done in much smaller scale. The mangrove snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus was recently spawned in captivity and larvae and juveniles were produced. In 1992, the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon constituted about 87% of brackishwater pond production. Pond culture of the white shrimp P. merguiensis and the mudcrab Scylla sp. is at the experimental stage. Red tilapia hybrid was the major freshwater species cultured in cages, with 1,486 tons harvested in 1992. Freshwater pond production was valued at RM 100.85 million, 22% of which was due to the eel Anguilla japonica. Production of freshwater ornamental fishes is also becoming significant. Other exotic species recently bred and cultured are the African catfish Clarias gariepinus and the pacu Piaractus brachypomus. The indigenous freshwater catfish Mystus nemurus and carp Probarbus julleini have recently been bred in captivity and cultured experimentally. Lately, there have been attempts to culture non-conventional species such as the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana, the soft-shell turtle Trionyx sinensis, and aquatic ornamental plants.
Conference paperS Sahavacharin - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterCoastal aquaculture in Thailand has expanded rapidly in both area and production in the last decade. The important cultured species are the shrimps (Penaeus monodon and P. merguiensis), sea bass Lates calcarifer, groupers Epinephelus malabaricus and E. tauvina, green mussel Perna viridis, horse mussel Modiolus senhausenii, blood cockles Anadara granosa and A. nodifera and the oysters Crassostrea belcheri, C. lugubris and Saccostrea commercialis. The total production from coastal aquaculture in 1991 was 230,444 tons, consisting of 70.3% shrimp, 28.8% mollusks, and 0.9% fishes. The seaweeds Gracilaria spp., pearl oysters, scallops, and abalones are cultured on a pilot scale in some places. Hatchery technologies have recently been developed for groupers, oysters, scallops, and abalones. Expanded aquaculture has had some adverse effects on the environment and has also suffered from the environmental changes and conflicts due to other sectors using the same water and other resources.
Conference paperB Sirikul, S Luanprida, K Chaiyakam & R Sriprasert - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture practised in Thailand is in the form of pond culture and cage culture in freshwater, brackishwater and coastal areas. The main species cultured include freshwater prawns, brackishwater shrimp, cockles, mussels, and various freshwater and marine finfishes. There is good potential for increased production from freshwater, brackishwater and marine aquaculture. However, the 1983 production of 145 000 mt represents only about 6% of Thailand's total fish production and production in this subsector has fluctuated widely. It will be several years before aquaculture production will contribute substantially to total production. Nonetheless, the culture of high value species of shrimp and fish could contribute significantly to export earnings during the next 5 to 10 years. Conducted primarily by government agencies, research and development are along the lines of increasing seed supply, establishing new culture techniques or improving older ones. The Department of Fisheries (DOF) together with some private companies have ventured into the development and testing of artificial diets for the various cultured species using a variety of indigenous feed stuffs. It is estimated that with adequate investments and appropriate support, aquaculture production will increase from 145 000 mt in 1983 to 378 000 mt in 1991, showing an annual increase of about 13% over this period. Major increases would come from bivalve mariculture (131 000 mt), brackishwater ponds (36 000 mt) freshwater ponds (46 000 mt) and brackishwater cage culture (20 000 mt).