Farming of mussels and oysters
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This paper reviews the works on mussel and oyster culture conducted from 1975 to 1985 by the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department at Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines. Innovative techniques developed in increasing collection of natural seeds and in improving farming techniques are presented. Results of the work on artificial seed production, bacterial depuration, uptake and elimination of heavy metals by green mussel, investigations on red tides, and microbiology of spoilage are discussed.
Sitoy, H. S. (1988). Farming of mussels and oysters. In J. V. Juario & L. V. Benitez (Eds.), Perspectives in Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Japan: Contributions of the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department. Proceedings of the Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines. (pp. 231-248). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: SEAFDEC, Aquaculture Department. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/133
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Seed (aquaculture); Food organisms; Fish handling; Red tides; Heavy metals; Mollusc culture; Seed collection; Induced breeding; Mussel culture; Spawning; Seed production; Microbial contamination; Oyster culture; Self purification; Bioaccumulation; Aquaculture techniques; Perna viridis; Crassostrea iredalei; Philippines, Panay I., Iloilo
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Conference paperB Sirikul, S Luanprida, K Chaiyakam & R Sriprasert - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture practised in Thailand is in the form of pond culture and cage culture in freshwater, brackishwater and coastal areas. The main species cultured include freshwater prawns, brackishwater shrimp, cockles, mussels, and various freshwater and marine finfishes. There is good potential for increased production from freshwater, brackishwater and marine aquaculture. However, the 1983 production of 145 000 mt represents only about 6% of Thailand's total fish production and production in this subsector has fluctuated widely. It will be several years before aquaculture production will contribute substantially to total production. Nonetheless, the culture of high value species of shrimp and fish could contribute significantly to export earnings during the next 5 to 10 years. Conducted primarily by government agencies, research and development are along the lines of increasing seed supply, establishing new culture techniques or improving older ones. The Department of Fisheries (DOF) together with some private companies have ventured into the development and testing of artificial diets for the various cultured species using a variety of indigenous feed stuffs. It is estimated that with adequate investments and appropriate support, aquaculture production will increase from 145 000 mt in 1983 to 378 000 mt in 1991, showing an annual increase of about 13% over this period. Major increases would come from bivalve mariculture (131 000 mt), brackishwater ponds (36 000 mt) freshwater ponds (46 000 mt) and brackishwater cage culture (20 000 mt).
Conference paperAQ Hurtado-Ponce - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterResearch on seaweeds focused on the carrageenan-producing Kappaphycus alvarezii and the agar-producing Gracilaria spp. Growth of K. alvarezii was better on horizontal lines than on vertical or cluster lines from bamboo rafts. All morphotypes (brown green, and red) grew faster at 50 cm than at 100 cm below the water surface, but the green morphotype showed better carrageenan properties. A socioeconomic survey of K. alvarezii farming in Panagatan Cays, Antique revealed that a farmer has an average annual production of 3 tons/ha (dry) with the fixed bottom and hanging longline methods. Three species of Gracilaria in natural beds in lloilo showed monthly variations in biomass and agar quality; G. heteroclada had the highest biomass and gel strength. When this species was grown in tanks, growth and agar sulfate content were influenced by the interaction of light, salinity, and nutrients. Enriched and unenriched stocks of G. heteroclada differed in agar quality. When G. heteroclada was grown with the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in extensive ponds, the highest growth rate and production were obtained at the seaweed stocking density of 250 g/m2; this was in November when average water temperature, transparency, and salinity were low. Salinity tolerance varies among Gracilaria species.Oyster (Crassostrea iredalei) and mussel (Perna viridis) farming in Western Visayas were assessed in 1992 in terms of the culture methods, socioeconomics, marketing, and profitability. A more localized survey of oyster and mussel fanning was conducted through rapid rural appraisal in two coastal towns in 1993. A farmer-participatory study followed in 1994 for the culture of oysters, mussels, seaweeds, and rabbitfishes in a river mouth in Dumangas, lloilo. Green mussel, brown mussel (Modiolus metcalfei), and seaweeds transplanted to Dumangas from Capiz have reproduced. In another study, the green mussel was tested as a biological filter in tiger shrimp ponds; shrimps stocked with mussels grew better than those without. A nationwide survey on the Placuna placenta fishery in 1993 showed 27 remaining 'kapis' beds; many others have been depleted due to excessive gathering, pollution, siltation, and trawling. Broodstocks are being developed to produce 'kapis' seed for grow-out and restocking. For the first time at AQD, adult donkey-ear abalone Haliotis asinina from the wild spawned naturally in laboratory tanks. Juvenile abalones can be successfully grown on Gracilaria or abalone diet.
Conference paperL Cheong - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe trend of fish production in Singapore is towards increasing contribution from marine and brackishwater aquaculture. Aquaculture production in 1986 represented 6.8% of local fish production. It is envisaged that this sector will provide about 37.5% of production by 1995. Freshwater aquaculture will focus mainly on production of ornamental fish. Production from farming of freshwater food fish is not likely to increase significantly. Commonly farmed marine finfishes are groupers (Epinephelus tauvina), sea bass (Lates calcarifer), and golden snapper (Lutjanus johni). Crustaceans include prawns (Penaeus merguiensis), crabs (Scylla serrata) and mussels (Perna viridis). Of the freshwater finfishes, the most commonly cultured are the grass, silver and bighead carps, red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus hybrid), Lampam jawa (Puntius gonionotus), marble goby (Oxyleotrix marmorata) and the snakehead (Channa sp.). Aquaculture systems use a combination of floating and shorebased techniques. Earthen ponds are utilized for the culture of freshwater carps, floating netcages for marine finfish, ponds and floating netcages for marine crustaceans, and rope culture for mussels. Some research and development studies conducted presently include maturation studies to solve the problem of inconsistent supply of prawn spawners, experiments or use of dry formulated feed to do away with dependency on trash fish as main feed for grow-out marine finfish, and investigations on diseases of prawns under intensive culture. Constraints for large-scale production of finfish seeds lie in the large tank facilities required for producing live feed; for nursery operations, time and manpower required for grading and feeding; for growout systems, disease prevention and control; for prawn production, inconsistent spawner supply; and for mussel production, low consumer demand. The species with the highest potential for fanning in Singapore is the banana prawn, Penaeus merguiensis as its culture can be intensified and high yields can be obtained.