Economic analysis of bottom line and raft monoline culture of Kappaphycus alvarezii var. tambalang in Western Visayas, Philippines
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A survey was conducted among 72 seaweed (Kappaphycus sp.) farmers in the Western Visayas region, Philippines, from March to July 1990 to assess their culture practices in terms of production and economic efficiency. Yields of 5.8 tons/ha per crop (dry weight) and 7.6 tons/ha per crop (dry weight) were obtained from bottom line and raft monoline methods, respectively. Investment requirement was P27361/ha for bottom line culture, and P56757/ha for raft monoline culture (P25=US$1). The bottom line method was more profitable with net farm income of P33286/ha per crop compared with P26365/ha per crop for the raft monoline method. The bottom line method of culturing seaweed is more cost-efficient compared with the raft monoline method. Production cost averaged P3.32/kg for the former method, and P5.55/kg for the latter method. Return on investment was also higher at 243% for the bottom line method and 93% for raft monoline.
CitationSamonte, G. P. B., Hurtado-Ponce, A. Q., & Caturao, R. D. (1993). Economic analysis of bottom line and raft monoline culture of Kappaphycus alvarezii var. tambalang in Western Visayas, Philippines.
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Conference paperAQ Hurtado-Ponce - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture DepartmentResearch on seaweeds focused on the carrageenan-producing Kappaphycus alvarezii and the agar-producing Gracilaria spp. Growth of K. alvarezii was better on horizontal lines than on vertical or cluster lines from bamboo rafts. All morphotypes (brown green, and red) grew faster at 50 cm than at 100 cm below the water surface, but the green morphotype showed better carrageenan properties. A socioeconomic survey of K. alvarezii farming in Panagatan Cays, Antique revealed that a farmer has an average annual production of 3 tons/ha (dry) with the fixed bottom and hanging longline methods. Three species of Gracilaria in natural beds in lloilo showed monthly variations in biomass and agar quality; G. heteroclada had the highest biomass and gel strength. When this species was grown in tanks, growth and agar sulfate content were influenced by the interaction of light, salinity, and nutrients. Enriched and unenriched stocks of G. heteroclada differed in agar quality. When G. heteroclada was grown with the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in extensive ponds, the highest growth rate and production were obtained at the seaweed stocking density of 250 g/m2; this was in November when average water temperature, transparency, and salinity were low. Salinity tolerance varies among Gracilaria species.Oyster (Crassostrea iredalei) and mussel (Perna viridis) farming in Western Visayas were assessed in 1992 in terms of the culture methods, socioeconomics, marketing, and profitability. A more localized survey of oyster and mussel fanning was conducted through rapid rural appraisal in two coastal towns in 1993. A farmer-participatory study followed in 1994 for the culture of oysters, mussels, seaweeds, and rabbitfishes in a river mouth in Dumangas, lloilo. Green mussel, brown mussel (Modiolus metcalfei), and seaweeds transplanted to Dumangas from Capiz have reproduced. In another study, the green mussel was tested as a biological filter in tiger shrimp ponds; shrimps stocked with mussels grew better than those without. A nationwide survey on the Placuna placenta fishery in 1993 showed 27 remaining 'kapis' beds; many others have been depleted due to excessive gathering, pollution, siltation, and trawling. Broodstocks are being developed to produce 'kapis' seed for grow-out and restocking. For the first time at AQD, adult donkey-ear abalone Haliotis asinina from the wild spawned naturally in laboratory tanks. Juvenile abalones can be successfully grown on Gracilaria or abalone diet.
Economics of cultivating Kappaphycus alvarezii using the fixed-bottom line and hanging-long line methods in Panagatan Cays, Caluya, Antique, Philippines A socio-economic survey was conducted among the Kappaphycus alvarezii planters of Panagatan Cay, Caluya, Antique, Philippines to determine some social information, farming practices and cost and returns of farming the seaweed. Cultivation is dominated by brown and green morphotypes using the fixed-bottom and hanging-long line methods. Approximately 9.3 t d. wt ha−1 and 7.2 t d. wt ha−1 is produced from fixed-bottom and hanging-long lines methods, respectively, after 60–90 days of culture. The former method requires a working capital and total investment of P7490 and P1870, respectively, compared to the hanging-long line which requires P8455 and P25464, respectively (US$ 1 = P26). A higher total revenue (P139500), net income ((P187895), and return of investment 1002%), but a shorter pay back period (0.10 years) were obtained in fixed-bottom than in hanging-long line. A lower total expenses were incurred in fixed-bottom (P21354) than in hanging-long line (P24566). The farming of K. alvarezii in this area has brought tremendous economic impact to the marginal fishermen.
The seasonality and economic feasibility of cultivating Kappaphycus alvarezii in Panagatan Cays, Caluya, Antique, Philippines Vegetative thalli of brown and green Kappaphycus alvarezii were cultivated in Panagatan Cays, Caluya, Antique, Philippines, over 60- and 90-day periods using hanging-long line (HL), fixed off-bottom (FB), and hanging long line–fixed off-bottom (HL–FB) methods to determine the daily growth rate and yield. A completely randomized design experiment with six replicates of 5-m line cultivation rope was used in the study. An economic analysis was prepared to determine the viability of the culture systems used. To determine the effect of strain, culture technique, culture days and culture month on the daily growth rate and yield, a combination of these different factors was treated as a single treatment. Results show that at 60-day culture period, daily growth rate and yield in all techniques were lowest in July–August and highest in January–February. Higher growth rate (2.3–4.2% day−1) and yield (3.6–15.8 fresh weight kg m−1 line−1) were obtained from September to February. Significant differences (P<0.05) in growth rate and yield were determined between culture months. At 90-day culture period, there were no significant differences in growth rate and yield between culture months; however, a significant difference was found between culture techniques. The average production (dry weight kg crop−1) of K. alvarezii when grown at 60-day culture period during lean and peak months using HL, FB and HL–FB techniques ranged from 421 to 3310 kg with HL–FB the highest and FB the lowest. Net income, return on investment (ROI) and payback period were all positive during peak months, but negative values were obtained during lean months. Only seaweed grown on HL technique during the peak months at 90-day culture period showed positive income, ROI and payback period. The seasonality of cultivating K. alvarezii is shown in this present study. This paper further shows the best culture technique to be adopted at certain months of the year to produce the highest yield and income.