Accumulation and excretion of metal granules in the prawn, Penaeus monodon, exposed to water-borne copper, lead, iron and calcium
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Juveniles of the giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon, were exposed for 10 days to 1 mg/l copper, lead, iron or calcium in order to investigate the formation and accumulation of metal granules in major soft tissues as well as their excretion from the body. Metal deposition was investigated by histochemistry and electron microscopy in the hepatopancreas and surrounding organs and tissues like the stomach, midgut, anterior midgut caecum, thoracal antennal gland extensions, haematopoietic tissue, and interspersed musculature, connective tissue and pigment tissue. The abundance of metal granules varied greatly between the metals and the tissues. Iron and calcium deposits were found in none of the tissues investigated. Copper granules were accumulated in high quantity in the hepatopancreas tubules, were scarce in the antechamber of the hepatopancreas, the anterior midgut and the anterior midgut caecum, and were lacking in the other tissues. The amount and size of copper granules increased along the hepatopancreas tubules in accordance with the cells' age. The granules were released by discharge of senescent hepatopancreas cells in the antechamber region and were added to the faeces. Lead granules were primarily found in the thoracal extensions of the antennal gland. In the hepatopancreas they occurred only in very small quantities, and in the other organs and tissues they were absent. In the antennal gland, the lead granules were individually discharged into the gland lumen by apocrine secretion and excreted with the urine. The observed ability of Penaeus monodon to detoxify and remove metals like copper and lead by granule formation and excretion and to prevent other metals like iron from entrance into major soft tissues corroborate that decapods are no suitable organisms for a long-term biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution.
CitationVogt, G., & Quinitio, E. T. (1994). Accumulation and excretion of metal granules in the prawn, Penaeus monodon, exposed to water-borne copper, lead, iron and calcium.
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Effects of long-term exposure to a mixture of cadmium, zinc, and inorganic mercury on two strains of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) MLA Cuvin-Aralar & EV Aralar -
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 1993 - Springer VerlagTilapia are an economically important group of fish. They have a short generation period of 3-6 months, and exhibit successive breeding. In addition, their fast growth, herbivorous or omnivorous feeding habits, high food conversion efficiency, ease of spawning, ease of handling, resistance to disease and good consumer acceptance make this group of fish highly popular in aquaculture in Asia, Africa and other developing countries. Tilapia have been the subject of research on pollution effects over the last decade. The purpose of this study was to determine growth, accumulation and depuration responses of 2 strains of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, chronically exposed to a mixture of heavy metals including cadmium, zinc and mercury.
Book chapterG Vogt & ET Quinitio - In N De Pauw & J Joyce (Eds.), Aquaculture and the environment: short communications and abstracts of contributions presented at the International Conference Aquaculture Europe '91, Dublin, Ireland, June 10-12, 1991, 1991 - European Aquaculture SocietyHeavy metals impair the aquaculture of shrimps and the quality of shrimp products. Some heavy metals occur in high amounts particularly in the hepatopancreas and the antennal gland (Gibson and Barker, 1979). This study was performed in order to determine whether copper, iron, and lead are accumulated in the hepatopancreas and the antennal gland extensions running along the hepatopancreas. Furthermore, damages of these metals and cadmium to the hepatopancreas cells were investigated. According to its commercial significance the giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon, was chosen as test species.
Resistance to a heavy metal mixture in Oreochromis niloticus progenies from parents chronically exposed to the same metals Adult Oreochromis niloticus were mass spawned in concrete tanks. The one-month old progenies (F1) were exposed for two months to a mixture of 0.01 mg L−1 Hg, 0.1 mg L−1 Cd and 1.0 mg L−1 Zn. The survivors were grown to sexual maturity in a natural environment (lake). The fish were spawned and the progenies (F2) of the exposed F1 (EF1) were exposed to another mixture of the three metals: 3.0 mg L−1 Zn, 0.30 mg L−1 Cd and 0.01 mg L−1 Hg, both in a static and static-renewal system. Another group of F2 from unexposed F1 (UF1) received the same treatment. Results showed that in both exposure systems, survival of the F2 of EF1 was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those from UF1. The medial lethal time (LT50) of the F2's were estimated from the time-response curve following regression analysis: 5.16 days (F2 of UF1) and 9.03 days (F2 of EF1) in the static exposure experiment; 3.34 days (F2 of UF1) and 5.52 days (F2 of EF1) in the static-renewal run. Exposure of the parental stock resulted in the culling out of individuals which were more susceptible to the heavy metals. The more resistant members of the population (survivors) which have the ability to adapt to the toxicants were able to pass on the resistance to their offspring. The results are supported by other studies in the field which demonstrate high resistance in populations of organisms living in contaminated sites.