Common carp in floating net cage culture
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The main objective of this experiment was to determine the optimal density or stocking rate for the optimal total production and growth rate of common carp, Cyprinus carpio . A raft of 10 x 10 m made of steel bars with drums as floaters was divided into nine plots. A cage of polyethylene 3 x 3 x 2 m, 1 inch mesh size was hung in every plot. About three fourths of the cage was under water. Three stages of stocking rate of common carp of about 130 g individual weight were used: 2 kg/m2, 4 kg/m2 and 6 kg/m2. The experimental Latin Square design was used. Artificial fish food (pellet) containing about 32 percent crude protein was given five times a day. Fish were fed to satiation. Morphometrical and limnological data were measured every 14 days. Individual growth and actual rations were calculated daily. As a result of this experiment, common carp culture is floating net cages with a stocking rate of 6 kg/m2 is recommended.
Jangkaru, Z., & Djajadiredja, R. (1979). Common carp in floating net cage culture. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Pen Cage Culture of Fish, 11-22 February 1979, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines (pp. 55-60). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center; International Development Research Centre
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Conference paperIbA Kechik - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture in Malaysia is experiencing rapid growth. Total production in 1992 amounted to 79,699 tons valued at RM 207.4 million. These figures are 23% and 25% higher than the previous year's. Semi-culture of the cockle Anadara granosa was still predominant, contributing about 70% of the total output. Culture and production of the oyster Crassostrea iredalei is still insignificant. Sea bass Lates calcarifer constituted over 80% of the production from marine cages. Cage culture of grouper Epinephelus sp., snapper Lutjanus sp. and pompano Trachinotus blochii were also done in much smaller scale. The mangrove snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus was recently spawned in captivity and larvae and juveniles were produced. In 1992, the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon constituted about 87% of brackishwater pond production. Pond culture of the white shrimp P. merguiensis and the mudcrab Scylla sp. is at the experimental stage. Red tilapia hybrid was the major freshwater species cultured in cages, with 1,486 tons harvested in 1992. Freshwater pond production was valued at RM 100.85 million, 22% of which was due to the eel Anguilla japonica. Production of freshwater ornamental fishes is also becoming significant. Other exotic species recently bred and cultured are the African catfish Clarias gariepinus and the pacu Piaractus brachypomus. The indigenous freshwater catfish Mystus nemurus and carp Probarbus julleini have recently been bred in captivity and cultured experimentally. Lately, there have been attempts to culture non-conventional species such as the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana, the soft-shell turtle Trionyx sinensis, and aquatic ornamental plants.
Conference paperK Fukusho - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture production in Japan in 1993 was 1,351,000 tons, 15.6% of the total fisheries production. About 93.6% came from mariculture and 6.4% from freshwater aquaculture. The per cent contribution of aquaculture to total production has increased in recent years but partly because marine fisheries,especially of sardine and pollack, have decreased. Aquaculture has reached a plateau, and decreased slightly between 1992 and 1993. Diverse marine and freshwater species are cultured in Japan — various fishes, crustaceans, mollusks, seaweeds, sea squirt, sea urchin, and others. Research and development in mariculture focus on finding substitutes for animal protein in feeds, improvement of fish quality, protection of the culture environment, use of offshore floating culture systems, and protection from diseases. Research in freshwater aquaculture has expanded to include recreational fishing, the propagation and preservation of endangered species, and the construction of fish ladders for salmonids and other migratory species.
Growing the reproductive cells (carpospores) of the seaweed, Kappaphycus striatum, in the laboratory until outplanting in the field and maturation to tetrasporophyte Carposporophytes of the seaweed, Kappaphycus striatum, from the wild were made to shed spores in the laboratory and grown in multi-step culture method until they reached maturity. For each succeeding transfer onto increasingly bigger culture vessels, there was a marked increase in the growth of carposporelings. When plantlets were ready for outdoor culture, they were placed in aquaria and concrete tanks and later moved to the sea in net cage and long-line for grow-out culture. Successfully growing sporelings from carposporophytes in the laboratory until they reach market size seems to depend on the stage of sporelings and environmental factors such as photoperiod and temperature. In this study, carpospore progenies (diploids) also matured into tetrasporophytes and haploid progenies showed resistance to higher temperature.