Effect of Epinephelus coioides, Chanos chanos, and GIFT tilapia in polyculture with Penaeus monodon on the growth of the luminous bacteria Vibrio harveyi
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Studies have shown that the presence of Tilapia hornorum hybrid has antibacterial effect against luminous bacteria. The present study aims to determine the effect of different fish species such as grouper, milkfish and tilapia in polyculture with shrimp on the growth of luminous bacteria. Results showed that stocking of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus hybrid and grouper Epinephelus coioides at a biomass of 500 g/m3 efficiently inhibited the growth of luminous bacteria in shrimp (biomass = 80 g/m3) rearing water and positively affected shrimp survival. Results also showed that the presence of milkfish Chanos chanos at a biomass of 500 g/m3 did not inhibit the growth of luminous bacteria in shrimp (biomass = 80 g/m3) rearing water.
CitationTendencia, E. A., Fermin, A. C., dela Peña, M. R., & Choresca Jr., C. H. (2006). Effect of Epinephelus coioides, Chanos chanos, and GIFT tilapia in polyculture with Penaeus monodon on the growth of the luminous bacteria Vibrio harveyi.
Fish culture; Hybrid culture; Polyculture; Shrimp culture; Antibiotics; Disease control; Aquaculture techniques; Bacterial diseases; Growth; Stocking (organisms); Brackishwater fish; Luminous bacteria; Biomass; Hybrids; Stocking; Survival; Epinephelus coioides; Chanos chanos; Tilapia hornorum; Vibrio harveyi; Oreochromis niloticus; Penaeus monodon; Milkfish; Giant tiger prawn; GIFT tilapia; Groupers; Shrimp
The study was funded by the Government of Japan through the Trust Fund awarded to the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC AQD) under study code 6251-300-60 (GOJ TF) and SEAFDEC AQD under study code FH 07 2001T.
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The sulfide tolerance of milkfish and tilapia in relation to fish kills in farms and natural waters in the Philippines Fish kills of milkfish Chanos chanos and tilapia Oreochromis spp. now occur frequently in brackish, marine, and freshwater farms (ponds, pens, and cages) in the Philippines. Aquafarms with high organic load, limited water exchange and circulation, no aeration, and high stocking and feeding rates can become oxygen-depleted and allow sulfide from the sediments to appear in the water column and poison free-swimming fish. The sulfide tolerance of 2-5 g milkfish and 5-8 g O. mossambicus was determined in 25-liter aquaria with flow-through sea water (100 ml min-1) at 26-30 °C and sulfide stock solutions pumped in at 1ml min-1. Total sulfide concentrations in the aquaria were measured by the methylene blue method and used in the regression against the probits of % survival. Four experiments showed that the two species have similar sulfide tolerance. In sea water of pH 8-8.5, about 163 ± 68 μM or 5.2 ± 2.2 mg l-1 total sulfide (mean ± 2 se) or 10 μM or 313 μg l-1 H2S was lethal to 50% of the fish in 4-8 h, and 61 ± 3 μM total sulfide or 4 μM H2S in 24-96 h (to convert all sulfide concentrations: 1 μM = 32 μg l-1). Earthen pond bottoms had 0-382 μM total dissolved sulfide (mean ± sd - 54 ± 79 μM, n - 76); a tenth of the samples had >200 μM. The water column may have such sulfide levels under hypoxic or anoxic conditions. To simulate some of the conditions during fish kills, 5-12 g milkfish were exposed to an abrupt increase in sulfide, alone or in combination with progressive respiratory hypoxia and decreasing pH. The tests were done in the same flow-through set-up but with sulfide pumped in at 25 ml min-1. The lethal concentration for 50% of the fish was 197 μM total sulfide or 12 μM H2S at 2 h, but 28-53 μM sulfide allowed fish to survive 6-10 h. Milkfish in aquaria with no aeration nor flow-through sea water died of respiratory hypoxia in 5-8 h when oxygen dropped from 6 to 1 mg l-1. Under respiratory hypoxia with 30-115 μM sulfide, the fish died in 2.5-4 h. Tests with low pH were done by pumping a weak sulfuric acid solution at 25 ml min-1 into aquaria with flow-through sea water such that the pH dropped from 8 to 4 in 5 h. Under these conditions, milkfish died in 7-9 h when the pH was 3.5. When 30-93 μM sulfide was pumped in with the acid, the fish died in 2-6 h when the pH was still 4.5-6.3. Thus, sulfide, hypoxia, and low pH are each toxic to milkfish at particular levels and aggravate each other's toxicity. Aquafarms must be well oxygenated to prevent sulfide toxicity and fish kills.
Conference paperER Cruz-Lacierda - In M Shariff, RP Subasinghe & JR Arthur (Eds.), Diseases in Asian Aquaculture I. Proceedings of the First Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture, 26-29 November 1990, Bali, Indonesia, 1992 - Asian Fisheries Society, Fish Health SectionMilkfish (Chanos canos) and tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) were exposed to varying concentrations of rotenone (95-98% active ingredient) to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50). The 1, 6, 12, 24, and 96 h LC50 were 64, 36, 36, 30 and 25µg/1 for milkfish and 172, 123, 91, 86 and 80 µg/1 for tilapia, respectivly, at 28±1oC. In another experiment, O. mossambicus were exposed to a lethal concemtration of rotenone (100µg/1) that had been allowed to age for selected periods of time to determine whether significant degradation occurs within 24h. Mortality after 3 to 24 h exposure in 0 (no aging), 3 and 6 h aged rotenone solution were not significantly different from the control test even after 24 h of exposure. These results inducate that the treated water was no longer toxic to the fish after 12 h and acute toxicity of rotenone ceased towards the end of 12 h at 27 ± 1oC
Effect of shrimp biomass and feeding on the anti-Vibrio harveyi activity of Tilapia sp. in a simulated shrimp–tilapia polyculture system The efficiency of Tilapia hornorum to control luminous bacteria in a simulated shrimp farm environment has been reported. However, the effects of different factors such as feed input and the shrimp biomass were not taken into consideration. This study investigated the effect of feeding and increased shrimp biomass on the efficiency of tilapia to inhibit the growth of luminous bacteria. Results showed that feeding enhances the antibacterial activity or improves the efficiency of tilapia to inhibit the growth of luminous bacteria. However, the efficiency of tilapia at a biomass of 500 g/m3 is reduced if the shrimp biomass is greater than 80 g/m3. This explains the discrepancies in the results obtained in the use of tilapia to control luminous bacterial disease in shrimp ponds. The effect of starvation on the bacterial load of tilapia, grouper and milkfish feces and the amount of feces in the intestine was also investigated. Results showed that total bacterial and presumptive Vibrio count of fish feces decreased after 1 week of starvation except for the presumptive Vibrio count of grouper. The amount of feces in the intestine also decreased as starvation progressed. Moreover, bacteria isolated from the three species have antibacterial activity against the luminous bacteria Vibrio harveyi.