Laboratory Manual of Standardized Methods for the Analysis of Pesticide and Antibiotic Residue in Aquaculture Products
Book chapter- In Laboratory manual of standardized methods for the analysis of pesticide and antibiotic residue in aquaculture products, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAgricultural chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides have made an important contribution to agriculture. Pesticides protect crops from pests and diseases. They have brought about large yield increases, and have helped ensure that the rise in food production has kept well ahead of the rise in population. However, there is a growing concern about the safe use of these chemicals, and the potential dangers to farmers who use them, the environment, and consumers. There is particular concern about pesticides, since almost all chemicals that can kill pests are also potentially damaging to human health. Legislation requires that pesticide use is appropriately controlled and maximum residue levels (MRLs) not be exceeded. The level of pesticide residues in food raw materials is a measurable standard. But while residue analysis is essential for companies wishing to assure themselves that their products have been produced in accordance with best practice and within the law, it can be used to greatest effect when targeted at samples most likely to contain residues. Reliable residue analytical methods are necessary to measure the magnitude of residue in a seafood, and to enforce legal residue limits (tolerances). Sample preparation and extraction, clean up of extracts and pesticide detection are the main procedures in pesticide residue analysis. There is an interplay among these factors which should be considered in the choice of a particular method.
Book chapter- In Laboratory manual of standardized methods for the analysis of pesticide and antibiotic residue in aquaculture products, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquacultured animals are under constant threat from bio-aggressors such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi. These organisms harm either spontaneously or through aquatic animal husbandry practices, and often both. Indeed, it is generally recognized that disease problems follow the development of techniques for animal production. Consequently, fish culture uses a variety of chemicals that represent potential threats to the health of the cultured animal, indigenous biota, and even humans. Chemicals employed in aquaculture include the following: - Drugs used to treat disease (chemical therapeutants) - Chemicals introduced through construction materials - Hormones used to alter reproductive viability, sex, and growth rates Of these, chemotherapeutic drugs are the most harmful. Chemotherapeutic treatments are initiated after clinical signs of a disease appear in a population of fish. Chemicals used in construction and hormones are not considered because they are relatively non-toxic. The use of chemical therapeutants obviously leads to the transit of drugs and to their persistence in products intended for human consumption. It also leads to the release of drugs or their metabolites to the aquatic environment. Hence the criticisms raised in the press against the use of chemotherapy in aquaculture, and the restrictive legislation set up in many countries under pressure of public opinion. It sometimes appears that people would believe that drug resistance of bacteria responsible for human infections originates exclusively, or almost exclusively, from consumption of animal products such as those provided by aquaculture. It should be noted that in addition to the chemicals that are deliberately used, fish raised in aquaculture are also susceptible to contamination via pesticides present in feed, agriculture run-off water, and sediments. The magnitude of human exposure to these sources has not yet been fully assessed and should be examined periodically in light of the growth and change in this sector of the seafood industry.
Laboratory manual of standardized methods for the analysis of pesticide and antibiotic residue in aquaculture products - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe manual contains guidelines on the detection of antibiotic and pesticide residues in aquaculture products. Different methods for the analysis of the two chemicals are discussed. The manual is expected to benefit all those who are involved in the monitoring and enforcement aspects of chemical residue limits in aquaculture products in the region.