Nature parks, museums, gardens, and zoos for biodiversity conservation and environment education: the Philippines
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Public consciousness about biodiversity and the environment, and their importance for sustainable development is not widespread in the Philippines. This article advocates nonformal environment education through nature recreation as a means toward 'greening, the mind and the spirit of the citizens. Information is provided about biodiversity, and the status and potential of nature parks, museums, gardens, and zoos in the country. Many of the 116 national parks and protected areas have been exploited for products and energy, and only some provide for recreation-cum-education. The Philippines has no national botanical garden, zoo, or aquarium, and the National Museum is not the proud institution that it should be. Some universities have small museums, botanical gardens, and other biodiversity exhibits for instruction and research, but these and the few zoos and wildlife centers are poorly funded or managed.
CitationBagarinao, T. (1998). Nature parks, museums, gardens, and zoos for biodiversity conservation and environment education: the Philippines.
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The biology of Penaeus monodon in the capture fisheries off orissa coast, India in the context of occurrence of natural broodstock. T Rajyalakshmi, SM Pillai & P Ravichandran - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe tiger prawn of India, Penaeus monodon Fabricius has a differential distribution in the two coasts of India. Density is high in the northeastern part of the Bay of Bengal gradually declining towards the mid-east and becoming quite scarce towards the south. On the west coast, the distribution is more sparse and limited to a few months, off Bombay. The only known inshore areas of capture fisheries are the Godavari estuarine system, and the lagoons off Orissa at Chilka and Madras at Pulicat. The only known offshore capture exists off the Orissa coast at Paradip and Puri extending south to Visakhapatnam and Kakinada Bay. The greatest production comes off the brackishwater "bheri" (wild culture) system in the extensive "sunderbans" of West Bengal on the northeast where millions of seed recruited to the Hooghly estuarine complex are drawn in along with tidal waters and "cultured." The distribution profoundly affects the maturity, breeding and recruitment of this highly euryhaline species. The distribution can be related to the cyclic currents in the Bay of Bengal which have a profound effect on the salinity and temperature profile. It can also be related to the immense quantity of freshwater inflow from the mighty Hooghly-Matlah-Roopnarayan Padma estuarine complex at the head of the Bay and the other major riverine estuaries on the mid-east coast viz., the Mahanadi, Godavari and Krishna. The pattern of circulation and estuarine flows is such that it might also positively influence the food distribution, both live and detrital, in this region. Ripe (gravid) and ripening females and males of P. monodon in the size range of 100-250 g are captured off Paradip coast in the not very deep (30-40 m) waters where coastal trawlers operate, from October through April corresponding to the post-monsoon stability in the water movement and the increasing salinity. This offers a good augury for setting up hatcheries in adjacent zones using naturally mature forms. Catch records from one major freezing plant are presented to indicate the density and distribution of the species at the Paradip-Puri coast.
Conference paperMNR Alava, MLL Dolar & JA Luchavez - In CL Marte, GF Quinitio & AC Emata (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Breeding and Seed Production of Cultured Finfishes in the Philippines, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 4-5 May 1993, 1996 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterNatural spawnings of four Epinephelus species reared in the laboratory were observed from 1987 to 1992. These species are: E. summana, E. caeruleopunctatus, E. macrospilus and E. fuscoguttatus. Spawning was serial, usually occurring at night, on or 1-6 days after the new moon. Egg characteristics of these four species were compared. Fertilized egg and early larval development of E. summana and E. fuscoguttatus are discussed.
Water quality assessment of the Langat River, Selangor, Malaysia using the natural algal periphyton community and laboratory bioassays of two Chlorella species A Anton - In IJ Dogma Jr., GC Trono Jr. & RA Tabbada (Eds.), Culture and use of algae in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Symposium on Culture and Utilization of Algae in Southeast Asia, 8-11 December 1981, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1990 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe physico-chemical conditions in 10 sampling stations off the headwaters of the Langat River, Selangor, Malaysia were studied. Monitoring was done twice a month from June to December 1980. Changes in water quality were observed downstream. A total of 35 taxa of periphyton in four main divisions of algae were identified. The decrease in the number of species in downstream stations could be due to changes in the river rather than to chemical pollution. Two species of Chlorella , namely, C. pyrenoidosa and C. vulgaris , were grown in filtered river water obtained from the different sampling stations to assess their growth responses. Results suggest that pollution in the Langat River was caused mainly by heavy siltation rather than chemical pollutants.