Nature parks, museums, gardens, and zoos for biodiversity conservation and environment education: the Philippines
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Public consciousness about biodiversity and the environment, and their importance for sustainable development is not widespread in the Philippines. This article advocates nonformal environment education through nature recreation as a means toward 'greening, the mind and the spirit of the citizens. Information is provided about biodiversity, and the status and potential of nature parks, museums, gardens, and zoos in the country. Many of the 116 national parks and protected areas have been exploited for products and energy, and only some provide for recreation-cum-education. The Philippines has no national botanical garden, zoo, or aquarium, and the National Museum is not the proud institution that it should be. Some universities have small museums, botanical gardens, and other biodiversity exhibits for instruction and research, but these and the few zoos and wildlife centers are poorly funded or managed.
CitationBagarinao, T. (1998). Nature parks, museums, gardens, and zoos for biodiversity conservation and environment education: the Philippines.
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magazineArticleJIL Aquino -
Fish for the People, 2018 - Secretariat, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterSoft-shell crabs command a high price because these could be eaten whole when cooked. Myanmar, Viet Nam, and Thailand are among the Southeast Asian countries that produce considerable quantities of soft-shell crabs mostly sold to local restaurants as well as exported to Australia, Europe, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and the USA. Production of soft-shell crabs is an emerging technology in the Philippines, where the demand for this product has been increasing and the technology becoming a growing interest. With prices that could range from US$ 10 to US$ 15 US$ or higher per kilogram depending on the size, soft-shell crabs are bought in bulk by elite restaurants in the Philippines that usually serve this delicacy with complimentary food or drinks. Although the demand for soft-shell crabs is high, production is still unstable due to lack of seedstocks, which are mainly sourced from the wild. To reduce the pressure on the natural population, SEAFDEC/AQD has initiated the development of soft-shell crab technology using hatchery-produced seedstocks, and is currently promoting the use of hatchery-produced seedstocks for soft-shell crab farming to local and international stakeholders all over the Southeast Asian region through its training courses. With funding support from the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic, and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) through its National Mud Crab Science and Technology Program (NMCSTP), SEAFDEC/AQD has intensified the development of the soft-shell crab technology. Applicable to all mangrove (mud) crab species, the technology for the production of soft-shell crabs could now be pursued using hatchery-produced seedstocks is described in this article.
magazineArticleFA Aya -
Fish for the People, 2019 - Secretariat, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe overexploitation of native aquatic species mainly for household consumption, not to mention the habitat loss and introduction of invasive alien species in major inland water bodies of the Philippines, has resulted in the significant decline of their natural populations. Philippine Republic Act 9147 otherwise known as the Wildlife Resources Conservation and Protection Act of 2001 and the Fisheries Administrative Order 233-1 in 2010 issued by the Philippine Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) served as two legal frameworks for protecting and conserving aquatic wildlife including indigenous species of the Philippines. With the current declining state of the country’s native aquatic species, relevant studies such as breeding and development of seed production techniques are necessary to revive the production of native aquatic species. These studies would also support the Philippine Government’s Balik Sigla sa Ilog at Lawa (BASIL) program of restocking inland water bodies with native aquatic species.
ArticleMJH Lebata, ME Walton, JB Biñas, JH Primavera & L Le Vay -
Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 2012 - Wiley
- Small-scale fisheries are an important element of the ecosystem goods and services that mangrove habitats provide, especially to poorer coastal communities that rely most on natural resources, and have similar values to payments for ecosystem services (PES) under carbon-trading schemes.
- In advance of fishery-enhancement trials for the mud crab Scylla olivacea, a mark–recapture study was conducted to estimate population size and turnover in 50 ha of isolated mangrove on Panay Island, Philippines. A total of 811 crabs were released in six sessions with an overall recapture rate of 41.5 ± 3.6%. Population size ranged from 607–1637 individuals.
- There was a high degree of site-fidelity, with 45.5% of recaptures in the same sampling areas as releases. Total mortality was 0.79 month-1, with fishing mortality accounting for 95% of overall mortality.
- Von Bertalanffy and Gompertz growth models yielded estimates for L∞ (carapace width) of 117.3 ± 14.7 and 110.6 ± 2.1 mm and for k of 2.16 ± 0.74 and 3.25 ± 0.81, respectively. Crab densities of 12–33 individuals ha-1 in the study area were lower than in other mangrove systems owing to intermittent recruitment, while growth rates indicated no limitation in terms of food supply.
- The study demonstrates that in specific mangrove habitats that are below carrying capacity, there is potential for fisheries enhancement to sustain or increase direct economic benefits from mangrove ecosystems and hence promote community engagement in broader conservation and PES initiatives.