Nature parks, museums, gardens, and zoos for biodiversity conservation and environment education: the Philippines
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Public consciousness about biodiversity and the environment, and their importance for sustainable development is not widespread in the Philippines. This article advocates nonformal environment education through nature recreation as a means toward 'greening, the mind and the spirit of the citizens. Information is provided about biodiversity, and the status and potential of nature parks, museums, gardens, and zoos in the country. Many of the 116 national parks and protected areas have been exploited for products and energy, and only some provide for recreation-cum-education. The Philippines has no national botanical garden, zoo, or aquarium, and the National Museum is not the proud institution that it should be. Some universities have small museums, botanical gardens, and other biodiversity exhibits for instruction and research, but these and the few zoos and wildlife centers are poorly funded or managed.
CitationBagarinao, T. (1998). Nature parks, museums, gardens, and zoos for biodiversity conservation and environment education: the Philippines.
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Susceptibility of hatchery-reared snubnose pompano Trachinotus blochii to natural betanodavirus infection and their immune responses to the inactivated causative virus Mass mortality of snubnose pompano Trachinotus blochii fry exhibiting dark coloration, anorexia, and abnormal swimming behavior was recently documented at the hatchery of the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Philippines. Samples of brain tissues were collected from affected fish and processed for RT-PCR amplification and virus isolation in cell culture. Infected E-11 cells exhibited cytopathic effect characteristic of betanodavirus. Histopathology of moribund fish showed pronounced vacuolations in the brain, spinal cord, and retina. An RT-PCR product of approximately 430 bp was amplified from the culture supernatant of betanodavirus-infected E-11 cells and sequenced. Sequencing of the T4 region of the coat protein gene (RNA 2) revealed clustering of the isolated virus within the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus type. The pathogenicity of the isolated betanodavirus in healthy pompano juveniles and fry was determined via intramuscular injection and immersion challenges, respectively. Higher mortality rates were obtained in challenged fish compared with the controls. An inactivated vaccine was subsequently prepared by treating the clarified betanodavirus with formalin. Pompano juveniles intraperitoneally injected with the inactivated vaccine exhibited neutralizing antibodies from days 15 (mean titer 1:240) to 125 (1:560) with the highest titer noted at day 64 (1:2240) post-vaccination. Additionally, pompano fry bath-vaccinated and consequently bath-challenged with betanodavirus at day 35 post-vaccination showed higher survival rate compared with the control, indicating the potential of the inactivated betanodavirus vaccine against VNN in pompano fry and juveniles.
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The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1991 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine BiotechnologyNatural food in combination with either SEAFDEC formulated or other commercial larvae diets was tested for large scale production of Penaeus monodon postlarvae. Two trials of 3 treatments each, 2 replications of each treatment, were conducted in 10 m3 circular concrete tanks. Shrimps were reared from nauplii to postlarvae. Dietary treatments for trial I included:(a) natural food (NF) alone, (b) NF+ commercial plankton substitute (PS) and (c) NF+ SEAFDEC diet (SD).For trial II, commercial powder diets SP or SMP were added:(a) NF + SP, (b) NF + PS + SP + SMP and (c) NF + SD + SP + SMP. Larvae survival was significantly higher in treatments containing the SEAFDEC diets than in the treatments receiving natural food alone (trial I) or natural food in combination with SP (trial II). Larval development was faster in the group fed the SEAFDEC diet; larvae in these groups metamorphosed into postlarvae an average of 1-2 days earlier than groups fed other diets. The presence of either SP or SMP did not improve the efficiency of the feeds. Results showed that larvae performance was affected by the nutrient composition of the diets and that by using proper feeding techniques and management of water quality, large scale hatchery production of P. monodon using natural food in combination with the SEAFDEC diet or plankton substitute is possible.
Milkfish (Chanos chanos) fingerling production in freshwater ponds with the use of natural and artificial feeds Milkfish fry were reared to fingerling size in freshwater ponds. For the first experiment, fish were fed the blue-green algae Oscillatoria inoculated and grown in the ponds, Oscillatoria supplemented with a fishmeal-based formulated diet, and the formulated diet alone. Twelve 50-m2 earthen ponds were prepared to enhance growth of the indigenous natural foods. Acclimated wild milkfish fry were stocked randomly at 90/m2 and were fed for 6 weeks. Milkfish fed the formulated diet alone had a significantly higher (P<0.05) mean weight gain (1.314±0.201 g) than milkfish given the combination of Oscillatoria and formulated diet (0.882±0.230 g). Growth was lowest for fish fed Oscillatoria alone. The feeding treatments in the second experiment were: combination of Spirulina powder and formulated diet, formulated diet alone, and rice bran alone. The stocking rate was equivalent to 91.5–92.5 fry/m2 and feeding lasted for 7 weeks. All feeds promoted some growth but the milkfish fed the formulated diet alone invariably had the highest weight increment (1.504±0.167 g), followed by fish given the feed combination (0.881±0.140 g). Rice bran alone gave the lowest growth response. For both pond experiments, growth trends of the young milkfish were similar to those grown under laboratory conditions. Although survival rates were significantly different in one aquarium experiment, survival rates of milkfish in ponds did not differ significantly (P>0.05) among treatments.