Nature parks, museums, gardens, and zoos for biodiversity conservation and environment education: the Philippines
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Public consciousness about biodiversity and the environment, and their importance for sustainable development is not widespread in the Philippines. This article advocates nonformal environment education through nature recreation as a means toward 'greening, the mind and the spirit of the citizens. Information is provided about biodiversity, and the status and potential of nature parks, museums, gardens, and zoos in the country. Many of the 116 national parks and protected areas have been exploited for products and energy, and only some provide for recreation-cum-education. The Philippines has no national botanical garden, zoo, or aquarium, and the National Museum is not the proud institution that it should be. Some universities have small museums, botanical gardens, and other biodiversity exhibits for instruction and research, but these and the few zoos and wildlife centers are poorly funded or managed.
CitationBagarinao, T. (1998). Nature parks, museums, gardens, and zoos for biodiversity conservation and environment education: the Philippines.
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Milkfish (Chanos chanos) fingerling production in freshwater ponds with the use of natural and artificial feeds Milkfish fry were reared to fingerling size in freshwater ponds. For the first experiment, fish were fed the blue-green algae Oscillatoria inoculated and grown in the ponds, Oscillatoria supplemented with a fishmeal-based formulated diet, and the formulated diet alone. Twelve 50-m2 earthen ponds were prepared to enhance growth of the indigenous natural foods. Acclimated wild milkfish fry were stocked randomly at 90/m2 and were fed for 6 weeks. Milkfish fed the formulated diet alone had a significantly higher (P<0.05) mean weight gain (1.314±0.201 g) than milkfish given the combination of Oscillatoria and formulated diet (0.882±0.230 g). Growth was lowest for fish fed Oscillatoria alone. The feeding treatments in the second experiment were: combination of Spirulina powder and formulated diet, formulated diet alone, and rice bran alone. The stocking rate was equivalent to 91.5–92.5 fry/m2 and feeding lasted for 7 weeks. All feeds promoted some growth but the milkfish fed the formulated diet alone invariably had the highest weight increment (1.504±0.167 g), followed by fish given the feed combination (0.881±0.140 g). Rice bran alone gave the lowest growth response. For both pond experiments, growth trends of the young milkfish were similar to those grown under laboratory conditions. Although survival rates were significantly different in one aquarium experiment, survival rates of milkfish in ponds did not differ significantly (P>0.05) among treatments.
Survey on the use of natural food and supplemental feed in commercial milkfish farms on Panay, Philippines C Lückstädt, U Focken, R Coloso & K Becker - In Deutscher Tropentag 2000: International Agricultural Research ; a Contribution to Crisis Prevention, October 11-12 2000, University of Hohenheim, 2000 - Stuttgart UniversityThis study evaluated the feed intake of the milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskål) in commercial brackishwater ponds under different management regimes. Feed intake and growth were compared between a rather intensive culture management in a fish farm of 1 ha pond size and a semi-intensive one, with a total pond area of 30 ha. The data suggested a direct consumption of only 12 % of the supplemental feed in the intensive farm, leading to a wastage of high quality fish feed and a significantly lower specific and metabolic growth rate (P< 0.001) than in the semi-intensive system without any supplementation and only relying on abundant natural food through fertilization. These results suggest that a heavy reduction in, or even the abandonment of the use of, supplemental feed for milkfish culture would be more cost-effective.
Water quality assessment of the Langat River, Selangor, Malaysia using the natural algal periphyton community and laboratory bioassays of two Chlorella species A Anton - In IJ Dogma Jr., GC Trono Jr. & RA Tabbada (Eds.), Culture and use of algae in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Symposium on Culture and Utilization of Algae in Southeast Asia, 8-11 December 1981, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1990 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe physico-chemical conditions in 10 sampling stations off the headwaters of the Langat River, Selangor, Malaysia were studied. Monitoring was done twice a month from June to December 1980. Changes in water quality were observed downstream. A total of 35 taxa of periphyton in four main divisions of algae were identified. The decrease in the number of species in downstream stations could be due to changes in the river rather than to chemical pollution. Two species of Chlorella , namely, C. pyrenoidosa and C. vulgaris , were grown in filtered river water obtained from the different sampling stations to assess their growth responses. Results suggest that pollution in the Langat River was caused mainly by heavy siltation rather than chemical pollutants.