Replacement of fish meal by animal by-product meals in a practical diet for growout culture of grouper (Epinephelus coioides)
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This study was conducted to develop compounded feeds having a low content of fish meal for juvenile grouper and as an alternative to trash fish feeding. Epinephelus coioides juveniles were stocked in 36 units of 250-litre tanks at 25 fish/tank. Eight dietary treatments representing increasing (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80 and 100%) percentage replacements of fish meal protein with 4:1 combination of meat meal and blood meal were tested in quadruplicate groups of fish arranged in a completely randomized design. Weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR), survival, food conversion rate (FCR) and body composition of fish were determined. Up to 80% of fish meal protein could be replaced by processed meat meal and blood meal, with no adverse effects on growth, survival and feed conversion efficiency of E. coioides juveniles. Use of animal byproduct meals as protein source substantially lowered the level of fish meal required in the juvenile grouper diet. The diet could be effectively used as a substitute for trash fish feeding, thereby reducing the requirements for fishery resource. From an economic standpoint, replacement of fish meal with cheaper animal byproduct meals in a practical diet for grouper could alleviate the problem of low fish meal availability and high cost.
Millamena, O. M. (2004). Replacement of fish meal by animal by-product meals in a practical diet for growout culture of grouper (Epinephelus coioides). In M. A. Rimmer, S. McBride, & K. C. Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture (pp. 110–112). Canberra: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.
PublisherAustralian Centre for International Agricultural Research
SeriesACIAR Monograph 110
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Supporting ASEAN good aquaculture practices: Utilization of alternative protein sources for aquafeed to minimize pressure on fishery resources REP Mamauag -
Fish for the People, 2016 - SEAFDEC SecretariatAquaculture industry of Southeast Asia has been expanding steadily as a result of an increasing demand of food fish in the region as well as in the global scale. Aside from its contribution to the world’s fisheries, the aquaculture industry creates employment opportunities and provides income for the region’s fish farmers, as well as produces fish which is a major component in the diets of peoples in Southeast Asia. However, the fast development of aquaculture had been viewed as threat to sustainable capture fisheries production as the widespread use of fish by-catch in aquaculture feeds results in overexploitation of the fishery resources and to certain extent degradation of the resources. Recognizing the importance and urgency of addressing such concern, the Senior Officials of the ASEAN Member States responsible for fisheries adopted in June 2011, the Plan of Action on Sustainable Fisheries for Food security for the ASEAN Region Towards 2020 which includes provision on the need to “improve the efficient use of aquatic feeds by strictly regulating the quality of manufactured feed and feed ingredients and support continued research for developing suitable alternative protein sources that will reduce dependence on fishmeal and other fish-based products.” Along with such declaration, the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department has been enhancing its R&D activities aimed at finding alternatives to fishmeal as feed ingredients in aquaculture feed formulations.
Status and development and use of alternative dietary ingredients in aquaculture feed formulation in Malaysia MSA Manaf & AFM Omar - In MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation … Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterIn 2013, capture fisheries contributed 85% (1.48 million mt) of total fish production in Malaysia. An additional 17.6% (261,000 mt) was recorded as fish-by-catch (FBC). On the contrary, aquaculture contributed 15% (260,800 mt) of the total fish production (49.0% marine fish and 51.0% freshwater fish). An estimated 150,000 mt FBCs were processed to fish meal (FM) producing 30,000 mt FM annually. In 2013, 16,600 mt of FM, valued at MYR50 million (USD15.6 million) were exported while 7,700 mt valued at MYR33 million (USD10.3 million) were imported. FBCs may consist of fish, crustaceans, mollusks and others. The quality of each FBC sample differs depending on the amount of fish and varies with the season and fishing ground. The use of FM, plant protein sources and fish oil (FO) in the aquafeed industry is not known. However, based on marine fish and shrimp feed price, the use of FM and FO in aquafeed was estimated to be 30-40%. Studies on FM and FO replacement in aquafeed using poultry by-product meal, fermented shrimp head waste, soybean meal, palm oil and soybean oil as well as the use of biofloc technology in white shrimp farming were also discussed. In order to improve feed and feeding practices, Department of Fisheries, Malaysia conducted good aquaculture practices on feeding management, feed formulation and fish nutrition courses to stakeholders (farmers and government officials). In addition, there are measures taken to monitor feed and feeding practices through random auditing process in aquaculture farms in Malaysia based on Good Aquaculture Practices (MyGAP) and Animal Feed Act 2009. Due to the increasing price of FM and FO, the aquafeed industry has started to replace in the feed formulations since the increasing feed cost has hindered farmers from buying aquafeed. As a result, there were traces of porcine DNA detected in almost all commercial aquafeed. Additionally, aquaculture farmers tend to formulate their own farm-made aquafeed instead of using commercial pellets. Thus, in order to sustain fish production, Department Fisheries promotes farming and consumption of omnivorous and herbivorous fish species as tilapia, catfish and grass carp. In addition, the Department of Fisheries also organizes Aquaculture Practices Awareness programs among aquafeed manufacturers and farmers to implement relevant rules and act to reduce the use of FM and FO. Lastly, research and development on FM and FO substitution in aquafeed with locally available ingredients are still ongoing and being done by Department of Fisheries, universities and the private sector.
Aquafeed development and utilization of alternative dietary ingredients in aquaculture feed formulations in Indonesia A Laining & AH Kristanto - In MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation … Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterFish production from aquaculture in Indonesia continues to grow rapidly from 1.7 million mt in 2009 to 4.0 million mt (excluding seaweed) in 2013. This is consistent with the increase of total aqua feed production from 995,000 mt in 2009 to 1.42 million mt in 2013 and about 90% of feed distributed to the farming area is produced by the feed industry. To meet the demand from the rapidly growing aquaculture industry, there is a need to develop new high-quality protein ingredients to reduce dependence on fish meal (FM). Despite high production of local FM in Indonesia, only around 5% of total production is used for aquafeed and the rest is exported mainly to Japan. Efforts toward reduction of using FM in commercial diets have been done in particular for freshwater species. Nowadays the content of FM in commercial diet for freshwater species is around 5-11%. Shrimp and marine species are still formulated to contain FM in range of 20-30% for shrimp and > 30% for marine species.Utilization of plant ingredients in particular soy bean meal (SBM) has partially replaced FM as dietary protein. However, SBM is also obtained entirely by import as all national production of soybean in the country are for tempe and tofu processing. Since almost 70% of components in commercial diet is imported ingredients, prices of commercial aquafeed increased through the years and are not competitive compared with price of fish in particular those categorized as low value species like carp, tilapia, catfish, Pangasius and milkfish. In several areas in Indonesia including Sumatera and Kalimantan Island, small-scale feed industry or on-farm feed making has been developed by individual or farmer group due to the limited access to commercial diets. Generally, the farmers use local feed ingredients which are available in their areas such as local fish meal, copra/palm cake meal, rice bran and tapioca. However, the quality of the diets produced varies among groups. Many nutritional studies have been conducted to find alternative protein sources. Local animal sources including shrimp head meal, blood meal, golden snail and vermi meal can be included in diet at rate of 8-30% for grouper species. The use of plant ingredients has been extensively evaluated particularly on herbivorous and omnivorous species to develop least-cost diet formulation. Plant ingredients containing > 20% protein such as copra cake meal, rubber seed, Leucaena leaf, and aquatic weed could be used in diet at different levels from 10-60% depending on the species. The presence of anti-nutritional compounds in plant ingredients is the main constraint in their use in aquafeed. Bio-processing using proper microorganism has been developed to improve their quality. More focus and in-depth research to minimize the negative effects of anti-nutritional compounds and to develop technique of their mass production are recommended.