Replacement of fish meal by animal by-product meals in a practical diet for growout culture of grouper (Epinephelus coioides)
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This study was conducted to develop compounded feeds having a low content of fish meal for juvenile grouper and as an alternative to trash fish feeding. Epinephelus coioides juveniles were stocked in 36 units of 250-litre tanks at 25 fish/tank. Eight dietary treatments representing increasing (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80 and 100%) percentage replacements of fish meal protein with 4:1 combination of meat meal and blood meal were tested in quadruplicate groups of fish arranged in a completely randomized design. Weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR), survival, food conversion rate (FCR) and body composition of fish were determined. Up to 80% of fish meal protein could be replaced by processed meat meal and blood meal, with no adverse effects on growth, survival and feed conversion efficiency of E. coioides juveniles. Use of animal byproduct meals as protein source substantially lowered the level of fish meal required in the juvenile grouper diet. The diet could be effectively used as a substitute for trash fish feeding, thereby reducing the requirements for fishery resource. From an economic standpoint, replacement of fish meal with cheaper animal byproduct meals in a practical diet for grouper could alleviate the problem of low fish meal availability and high cost.
Millamena, O. M. (2004). Replacement of fish meal by animal by-product meals in a practical diet for growout culture of grouper (Epinephelus coioides). In M. A. Rimmer, S. McBride, & K. C. Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture (pp. 110–112). Canberra: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.
PublisherAustralian Centre for International Agricultural Research
SeriesACIAR Monograph 110
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Supporting ASEAN good aquaculture practices: Utilization of alternative protein sources for aquafeed to minimize pressure on fishery resources REP Mamauag -
Fish for the People, 2016 - SEAFDEC SecretariatAquaculture industry of Southeast Asia has been expanding steadily as a result of an increasing demand of food fish in the region as well as in the global scale. Aside from its contribution to the world’s fisheries, the aquaculture industry creates employment opportunities and provides income for the region’s fish farmers, as well as produces fish which is a major component in the diets of peoples in Southeast Asia. However, the fast development of aquaculture had been viewed as threat to sustainable capture fisheries production as the widespread use of fish by-catch in aquaculture feeds results in overexploitation of the fishery resources and to certain extent degradation of the resources. Recognizing the importance and urgency of addressing such concern, the Senior Officials of the ASEAN Member States responsible for fisheries adopted in June 2011, the Plan of Action on Sustainable Fisheries for Food security for the ASEAN Region Towards 2020 which includes provision on the need to “improve the efficient use of aquatic feeds by strictly regulating the quality of manufactured feed and feed ingredients and support continued research for developing suitable alternative protein sources that will reduce dependence on fishmeal and other fish-based products.” Along with such declaration, the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department has been enhancing its R&D activities aimed at finding alternatives to fishmeal as feed ingredients in aquaculture feed formulations.
Status on development and use of alternative dietary ingredients in aquaculture feed formulations in Viet Nam VA Tuan - In MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation … Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis paper reviewed fish catch production and estimated demand of aquafeed, fish meal, fish oil, soybean meal in Viet Nam for year 2013. Fish catch production was around 2.8 million metric tons (mt) while marine fish production was 1.9 million mt. Estimated marine trash fish production was 0.8 million mt with over 100 species including the dominant species anchovy (Stolephorus spp.), lizard fish (Saurida spp.) and pony fish (Leistognathus spp.). Approximately 0.5 million mt of marine trash fish was used for livestock, aquaculture and fish meal. Local marine fish meal consisting of protein content from 50 to 68% and catfish byproduct meal containing protein level from 50 to 60% were available. Based on FCR values of 5 major species including catfish, black tiger shrimp, white leg shrimp, Asian seabass, and snake head, aquafeed production was estimated at around 2.5 million mt. Marine fish oil/squid liver oil requirement was from 15.5 to 31 thousand mt. Fish meal demand was from 252 and 430 thousand mt. Almost all fish meal and marine fish oil used in aquafeed were imported. Moreover, soybean and other plant ingredients are potential alternative sources to replace fish meal and fish oil. Vietnamese farmers produced 168 thousand mt soybean while soybean demand amounts for aquafeed were from 693 to 1,140 thousand mt. In 2013, feedmills imported approximately 3 million mt of soybean meal (cake) from many countries in the world. Some other plant protein sources which were also imported, have good nutrient profiles but they contain some anti-nutritional factors. In the future, research on replacement of fish meal and fish oil with plant and animal by-product sources and feed additives for aquafeed should be studied. In particular, the management of local fish meal plants and capture fishery should be improved.
Status development and use of alternative dietary ingredients in aquaculture feed formulation in the Philippines WM Cruz, J Villanueva & EG Janeo - In MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation … Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterIn 2011, the Philippines ranked 7th in the world in fish production. It produced 4.97 thousand metric tons of fish, mollusks, crustaceans, and aquatic plants (seaweeds). The Philippines also ranked 11th in aquaculture production with 1.22% of the world s aquaculture production of 62.7 million metric tons (mt). Aquaculture in the Philippines generally depends on commercially-milled aquafeeds which in 2012 amounted to 61,846 mt. Aquaculture feed is composed of 24.3% fish meal. Fish-by-catch is associated with trash fish. Utilization of trash fish in the country in each segment could be summarized as: (1) for human consumption; (2) for processing of fish sauce; (3) for production of fish meal; and, (4) as direct feed for aquaculture. In 2013, about 15 thousand mt (24.3%) of fish meal were used wherein 3.97 thousand mt is imported while about 11 thousand mt is assumed to come from the local fish meal. The product lines of these plants are tuna and sardines based meal using heads, tails and whole fish rejected from tuna and sardine canneries. Local fish meal has around 50-55% protein content. Due to limited production and high cost of fish meal, the use of alternative feed ingredients for aqua feed sources are being utilized which include: a) legumes; b) Ipil-ipil leaf meal; c) miscellaneous fodder plants, such as the leaves and other aerial parts of papaya, water hyacinth, Ipomea and sweet potato; d) roots and tubers like arrow roots (Maranta arundinacea), sweet potato(Ipomea batatas L.), cassava (Manihot escolenta Crantz), taro (Colocasia esculenta L.), and elephant yam (Amorphophallus campanulatus); e) cereals and cereal by-products like rice bran and maize and f) oil cakes and oil meals. For feeds of animal origin, African snail meal, Giant toad meal, fish silage, feather meal, maggot meal, mussel (tahong) meal, and Superworm, Zophobas morio are identified. To improve the efficiency of feeding, there are three (3) practices being used in the Philippines. These are a) biomass feeding, b) satiation or Ad Libitum , and c) the use of automatic and demand feeder. For organic aquaculture, azolla and lemna (duckweed) are being cultured in separate ponds or in hapas installed within the ponds and feeding is being done by scooping the plants out to feed the fish. In contrast, lab-lab, an association of microbenthic organism is grown in the ponds using organic fertilizer.