Replacement of fish meal by animal by-product meals in a practical diet for growout culture of grouper (Epinephelus coioides)
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This study was conducted to develop compounded feeds having a low content of fish meal for juvenile grouper and as an alternative to trash fish feeding. Epinephelus coioides juveniles were stocked in 36 units of 250-litre tanks at 25 fish/tank. Eight dietary treatments representing increasing (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80 and 100%) percentage replacements of fish meal protein with 4:1 combination of meat meal and blood meal were tested in quadruplicate groups of fish arranged in a completely randomized design. Weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR), survival, food conversion rate (FCR) and body composition of fish were determined. Up to 80% of fish meal protein could be replaced by processed meat meal and blood meal, with no adverse effects on growth, survival and feed conversion efficiency of E. coioides juveniles. Use of animal byproduct meals as protein source substantially lowered the level of fish meal required in the juvenile grouper diet. The diet could be effectively used as a substitute for trash fish feeding, thereby reducing the requirements for fishery resource. From an economic standpoint, replacement of fish meal with cheaper animal byproduct meals in a practical diet for grouper could alleviate the problem of low fish meal availability and high cost.
Millamena, O. M. (2004). Replacement of fish meal by animal by-product meals in a practical diet for growout culture of grouper (Epinephelus coioides). In M. A. Rimmer, S. McBride, & K. C. Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture (pp. 110–112). Canberra: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.
PublisherAustralian Centre for International Agricultural Research
SeriesACIAR Monograph 110
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Supporting ASEAN good aquaculture practices: Utilization of alternative protein sources for aquafeed to minimize pressure on fishery resources REP Mamauag -
Fish for the People, 2016 - SEAFDEC SecretariatAquaculture industry of Southeast Asia has been expanding steadily as a result of an increasing demand of food fish in the region as well as in the global scale. Aside from its contribution to the world’s fisheries, the aquaculture industry creates employment opportunities and provides income for the region’s fish farmers, as well as produces fish which is a major component in the diets of peoples in Southeast Asia. However, the fast development of aquaculture had been viewed as threat to sustainable capture fisheries production as the widespread use of fish by-catch in aquaculture feeds results in overexploitation of the fishery resources and to certain extent degradation of the resources. Recognizing the importance and urgency of addressing such concern, the Senior Officials of the ASEAN Member States responsible for fisheries adopted in June 2011, the Plan of Action on Sustainable Fisheries for Food security for the ASEAN Region Towards 2020 which includes provision on the need to “improve the efficient use of aquatic feeds by strictly regulating the quality of manufactured feed and feed ingredients and support continued research for developing suitable alternative protein sources that will reduce dependence on fishmeal and other fish-based products.” Along with such declaration, the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department has been enhancing its R&D activities aimed at finding alternatives to fishmeal as feed ingredients in aquaculture feed formulations.
Status on development and use of alternative dietary ingredients in aquaculture feed formulations in Thailand P Kosutarak - In MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation … Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThailand is one of the major producers of aquaculture commodities and aquafeeds in Asia. As the aquafeed industry has been growing continuously, the government through the Department of Fisheries (DOF) had undertaken the enactment of the Animal Feed Quality Control Act (1982) since 1992.The DOF oversees production of commercial aquafeeds of eight species. At present, there are many negative impacts by both aquaculture activities and the aquafeed industry. These include the use of feed ingredients from non-sustainable sources. Researches on the use of alternative dietary ingredients in aquafeeds are on-going. However, these solutions need to be cost-effective to be commercially feasible and alternative culture-systems have to be considered to improve feed efficiency. Thus, the important sectors that are involved to ensure the sustainable development and use of alternative dietary ingredients in aquafeeds are the: 1) government, 2) feed millers, and 3) fish farmers.
Conference paperMR Catacutan - In MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation … Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterCultured marine aquatic species are predominantly carnivorous. Major species in the region are seabass, grouper, snapper, tiger shrimp, mangrove crab and abalone. These species, except for abalone, require a high level of dietary protein mostly supplied by marine sources such as fish meal. Global production of marine fish and marine shrimps showed a 3-4 fold increase from 1995 to 2010. For the same period, the usage of commercial feed for production of marine fish and shrimps increased while the fish meal portion in the formulation decreased. This is indicative of fish meal being substituted with alternative sources in commercial feed production, and to some extent the substitution of marine oil which particularly improved the FCR for the marine fish production from 2.0 to 1.9 and for marine shrimps from 2.0 to 1.6. Plant products that include cereal grains, legumes and oilseeds have the most potential among the alternative ingredients for use in aquafeed. The use of these resources for high value marine species is limited due to a variety of anti-nutritional substances they contain. Removal of these substances by processing techniques has improved utilization but with added cost. Hence, fish meal is still the primary source of protein for marine carnivores and its substitution with higher amounts of alternative plant proteins may be difficult compared with lower levels of replacements. The Asian region has accounted for the more than 50% of the total global aquaculture production in 2012 with indications of increased utilization of alternative protein sources in commercial feed production. For the major marine species in the region the increasing trend of plant protein usage with the targeted levels of substitution of fish meal with plant protein sources should be sustainable.