Developments in mollusc farming in Southeast Asia
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Southeast Asia has a relatively long tradition in mollusc culture. The mollusc species of commercial significance in this region are the blood cockles (Anadara granosa), the green mussels (Perna viridis), the oysters (Crassostrea spp.) and the horse mussels (Modiolus sp.). Mollusc production has been observed to fluctuate dramatically in recent years due mainly to the inconsistent seed supply from the wild, which varies geographically and annually. These variations are often associated with pollution and also the uncontrolled harvesting of adults irrespective of their sizes, which reduces chances of spawning among adults. Production of the above-mentioned species in Southeast Asia in 1997 amounted to 73 820, 62 073, 36 779 and 5 300 mt., respectively. The culture of these bivalves is still dependent on traditional methods of obtaining seeds from the wild and transplanting them to culture sites for grow-out. Culture techniques for these bivalves are basically the same all over Southeast Asia, except for minor variations in the use of structures and materials to suit the local conditions. Whilst efforts are geared towards developing new technologies to promote mollusc culture in the region, it is important to facilitate and stimulate environmentally acceptable developments and sustainable management practices. Although hatchery propagation techniques have been developed for these cultured and other non-cultured species, the technologies have yet to be taken up commercially. Some of the common problems confronted by the region, which varies greatly by species and location, are inconsistent seed supply, lack of suitable areas for expanding culture activities, poor post harvest handling techniques, demand levels being below production capacity, environmental pollution, vagaries of nature, low price and lack of access to export markets.
Nair, D. M. (2001). Developments in mollusc farming in Southeast Asia. In L. M. B. Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines (pp. 103-114). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department.
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Institutional capacity development for sustainable aquaculture and fisheries: Strategic partnership with local institutions RF Agbayani & JD Toledo - In K Tsukamoto, T Kawamura, T Takeuchi, TD Beard Jr. & MJ Kaiser (Eds.), Fisheries for Global Welfare and Environment: Memorial Book of the 5th World Fisheries Congress 2008, 2008 - TerrapubMany people living in the rural areas in the Philippines, as in other developing countries in Southeast Asia, depend on aquatic resources for their food and livelihood. For the past two decades, the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC-AQD) has been working with fishing communities and people’s organizations, business sector, local government units, national government agencies, non-government organizations (NGOs) and academic and other research institutions to promote the efficient conservation, management and sustainable development of the country’s fisheries and aquatic resources so that these may continue to serve the needs of the people today and tomorrow. Using the lessons learned from those two decades of multi-sectoral and inter-disciplinary collaborations, SEAFDEC-AQD launched in late 2006 a project called Institutional Capacity Development for Sustainable Aquaculture (ICDSA) to hasten the transfer to and adoption by coastal villagers of appropriate technologies that would enhance the productivity of aquatic resources and at the same time safeguard the fragile balance of the aquatic ecology. The experience of SEAFDEC in coastal resource management shows that it is important to engage the collaboration of the local government units and other “on-the-ground” institutions, such as NGOs and people’s organizations, to be able to introduce effectively any social and technological interventions to target community-beneficiaries. However, before a fruitful collaboration among these institutions could be attained, there is a need to build their capacities, and those of the beneficiaries, for the vital roles that they play in the implementation of livelihood projects and environmental management programs. As of January 2008, SEAFDEC-AQD is implementing ICDSA projects in four provinces—Antique, Capiz, Guimaras and Northern Samar in central Philippines. In the pipeline are similar projects for a province in southern Philippines and two provinces in the north.
Conference paperAS Camacho & N Macalincag-Lagua - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe aquaculture sector of the Philippine fishing industry registered the highest growth rate of 12.5% in 1977-1986. The contribution of aquaculture to the total fish production was equivalent to 24% in 1986 compared to only 85 in the early 1970's. In terms of quantity, the mariculture subsector registered the highest growth rate of 10.2% in 1982-1986, whereas in terms of value the brackishwater fishpond subsector showed the highest growth rate of 33%. Meanwhile, freshwater aquaculture production exhibited a negative growth rate due to reduction of activities in Laguna de Bay and the slow expansion in hectarage of the commercial freshwater fishponds. Research by several agencies concentrated heavily on the culture of milkfish (Chanos chanos), tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), Chinese carps (Aristichthys nobilis and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), and sea bass (Lates calcarifer). Innovations in seaweed, oyster, and mussel farming are also discussed. Research directions are presented to assure an ecologically sustainable growth in aquaculture with emphasis on countryside development.
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