Responsible aquaculture development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia

The Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia (ADSEA) is a series conducted every three years for the formulation of the three-year research and development plan of the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department. It was conceived as a forum to assess the contribution of the Department to the development of aquaculture in the region. ADSEA was convened in 1987, 1991, and 1994. In 1997, in lieu of the regular seminar-workshop, a survey of aquaculture research and training needs was conducted and the result was the basis for the 1998-2000 research and training program of the Department. This seminar-workshop (ADSEA '99) reviewed the recent developments in aquaculture and provided a forum to discuss strategies to ensure further development of responsible aquaculture in the region. Specifically, ADSEA '99 1) assessed the progress and developments of aquaculture technologies in the region, and research and development in the Department since 1995; 2) reviewed recent advances in sustainable and responsible aquaculture elsewhere in the world; and 3) identified strategies for sustainable and responsible aquaculture in the region. The contributions of selected participants during ADSEA '99 appear in this present volume.

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  • Book | Conference publication

    Responsible aquaculture development in Southeast Asia : proceedings of the seminar-workshop on aquaculture development in Southeast Asia 

    LMB Garcia (Ed.) - 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    This publication documents the proceedings and outputs of the tri-annual seminar-workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia (ADSEA). This seminar, ADSEA 99, reviewed the recent developments in aquaculture and provided a forum to discuss strategies to ensure further development of responsible aquaculture in the region. It specifically covered the following: 1) assessment of the progress and development of aquaculture technologies in the region, and research and development in the Department since 1995; 2) review of recent advances in sustainable and responsible aquaculture elsewhere in the world; and, 3) identification of strategies for sustainable and responsible aquaculture in the region. The contributions of selected participants during ADSEA '99 appear in this present volume.
  • Conference paper

    Research on molluscs and seaweeds 

    AC Fermin & AQ Hurtado - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    This paper reviews the progress of mollusc and seaweed research at SEAFDEC AQD from 1995 to 1999. Because of the pressing need for seedstocks for stocking, research on the donkey s ear abalone, Haliotis asinina focused on the development of seed production and culture techniques. To improve the spawning performance and egg/larvae production of captive broodstock studies on reproductive biology, management of broodstock and development of diet were conducted. Studies to refine techniques for post-larval settlement and metamorphosis and development nursery rearing techniques were carried out to increase production of abalone juveniles. An artificial diet has been developed to enhance growth rates of juveniles during nursery as well as grow-out. However, since long-term use of artificial feeds did not favor the growth and survival of abalone during grow-out culture in tanks due to difficulties in maintaining water quality, sequential feeding with artificial diets and then seaweed Gracilariopsis bailinae seemed more practical.

    Broodstock development and seed production were the major research areas for the window-pane oyster Placuna placenta. Gonad development was enhanced by feeding a mixture of high densities of Isochrysis galbana and Tetraselmis tetrahele at a 3:1 ratio. P. placenta larvae reared with Isochrysis as feed showed best growth and survival. Settling stage was reached after 14 days of rearing. A salinity of 34 ppt was optimal for larval survival. Poor growth and survival of larvae was observed at low (10 ppt) and high salinity (40 ppt) levels. Re-stocking immature adults and juveniles was conducted in a depleted coastal bed to evaluate potentials for recruitment of the window-pane oyster. After 91 days, a survival rate of 51% was observed among immature adults. No juveniles survived after re-stocking.

    Studies on seaweeds focused on three economically important genera of red algae: (1) Gracilaria, (2) Gracilariopsis, and (3) Kappaphycus. These studies are in recognition of Gracilaria and Gracilariopsis as agarophytes and Kappaphycus as carrageenophyte having significant roles in the seaweed industry. Research studies therefore aimed to optimize culture techniques for and to develop environment-friendly aquaculture of these seaweeds. Optimization of biomass production was attempted by manipulating the nutrient environment, biomass density, the proportion of harvested biomass, and crop quality for conversion to agar and carrageenan. The use of G. bailinae as a bio-filter focused on the capacity of the seaweed and its agar to sequester heavy metals like cadmium copper, lead and zinc after exposure to various concentrations of these metals. Likewise, excess levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in a finfish broodstock tank with re-circulating water were reduced, demonstrating the efficiency of the seaweed as a bio-filter in aquaculture. Eco-physiological studies of Gracilaria changii, G. coronopifolia, G. firma, and G. bailinae involved the mass production of spores-in vitro as a possible source of seedlings for outplanting. A socioeconomic survey of Kappaphycus culture in the Philippines revealed that, although expensive, deep-sea farming of K. alvarezii using the multiple raft long-line technique was more productive and profitable than the traditional mono-line or the popularly practiced hanging long-line technique.
  • Conference paper

    Developments in mollusc farming in Southeast Asia 

    DM Nair - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Southeast Asia has a relatively long tradition in mollusc culture. The mollusc species of commercial significance in this region are the blood cockles (Anadara granosa), the green mussels (Perna viridis), the oysters (Crassostrea spp.) and the horse mussels (Modiolus sp.). Mollusc production has been observed to fluctuate dramatically in recent years due mainly to the inconsistent seed supply from the wild, which varies geographically and annually. These variations are often associated with pollution and also the uncontrolled harvesting of adults irrespective of their sizes, which reduces chances of spawning among adults. Production of the above-mentioned species in Southeast Asia in 1997 amounted to 73 820, 62 073, 36 779 and 5 300 mt., respectively. The culture of these bivalves is still dependent on traditional methods of obtaining seeds from the wild and transplanting them to culture sites for grow-out. Culture techniques for these bivalves are basically the same all over Southeast Asia, except for minor variations in the use of structures and materials to suit the local conditions. Whilst efforts are geared towards developing new technologies to promote mollusc culture in the region, it is important to facilitate and stimulate environmentally acceptable developments and sustainable management practices. Although hatchery propagation techniques have been developed for these cultured and other non-cultured species, the technologies have yet to be taken up commercially. Some of the common problems confronted by the region, which varies greatly by species and location, are inconsistent seed supply, lack of suitable areas for expanding culture activities, poor post harvest handling techniques, demand levels being below production capacity, environmental pollution, vagaries of nature, low price and lack of access to export markets.
  • Conference paper

    Developments in marine and brackishwater fish culture in Southeast Asia 

    WG Yap - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Freshwater, brackishwater, and marine ecosystems are recognized as distinct from each other and aquaculture is often conventionally categorized accordingly. However, the brackishwater aquaculture category is by no means universally recognized. China, India and Japan recognize only two categories: inland and marine aquaculture. Thailand and Vietnam, on the other hand, report production from brackishwater and marine aquaculture together under one category: coastal aquaculture.

    An examination of the species involved would show that there is such a wide overlap between so-called "brackishwater species" and "marine species" so that the two groups are virtually congruent with each other. Brackishwater species are euryhaline and can survive just as well in varying salinity levels and may also be raised and grown in full-strength seawater. So-called marine species, on the other hand, can tolerate slight dilutions in salinity and can be grown just as well in what are technically brackish waters. Furthermore, most, if not all, of the so-called brackishwater species invariably require marine waters for propagation. Thus, it would appear that the distinction between brackishwater and marine aquaculture is meaningless in categorizing aquaculture species.

    Saltwater culture of finfish in Southeast Asia may be characterized by low species diversity; sluggish industry growth, continued use and even dependence for some species on wild-caught seedstock, and heavy dependence either on fresh fish biomass or on fish meal for formulated feeds. There are only a few of finfish species or species groups that are now commercially raised in saltwater: milkfish, tilapia, grouper, and sea bass. Mangrove snapper and rabbitfish are to a certain extent aIready being cultured, but have not yet reached a significant proportion. Relative to other aquaculture commodities, particularly penaeid shrimps and seaweeds, the growth of saltwater fish culture in Southeast Asia has not been particularly spectacular. This is not for lack of market since there is a good intemational and local market for groupers.

    While milkfish and sea bass fry can now be commercially produced in hatcheries, commercial production of grouper fingerlings seedstock remains elusive, despite a long R & D history. There is an urgent need to develop cost-effective feeds with a greatly reduced requirement for fish protein for saltwater aquaculture.
  • Conference paper

    Socioeconomics of responsible aquaculture in Asia 

    K Viswanathan & E Genio - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Aquaculture provided 20% of global fisheries production and 29% of food fish in 1996. Much of the production was from low income food-deficit countries (LIFDCs). Between 1990 and 1996, the average expansion rate of aquaculture in LIFDCs was nearly six times than in non-LIFDCs. The expansion in production is not free of problems, however. Environmental, biological diversity, socioeconomic, and consumer safety issues have been linked to intensive aquaculture. These problems are seen in the context of a need for good governance of aquaculture development. The socioeconomics of responsible aquaculture and approaches of good governance of aquaculture is examined in this paper.
  • Conference paper

    Technology Verification and Extension Program of SEAFDEC AQD 

    DD Baliao - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Realizing the urgent need to package technologies generated through the years of R&D, the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department (AQD) through the TEchnology Verification and Extension Section (TVES) launched in June 1996, a technology transfer and commercialization program to test aquaculture technologies in actual production systems. On-site trials were implemented to verify sustainability, social equitability, and profitability of aquaculture technologies. Going into real-life situations using aquaculture farms, TVES collaborated with fish farmers and other institutions in brining technology to the end-users to enhance widespread interest in aquaculture. This way, TVES can hasten adoption of these technologies and intensify information dissemination to the rest of the aquaculture industry. Once found viable and profitabe, extension manuals derived from verification studies are published, with the hope that AQD can contribute to the country s concern for increasing livelihood opportunities and food production from the aquaculture sector.
  • Conference paper

    Research on crustaceans 

    OM Millamena - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Crustacean research at the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department in 1994-1999 focused on two commercially important species: the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, and the mud crab Scylla serrata. Research on tiger shrimp dealt with broodstock development, refinement of shrimp culture systems, and health management. Broodstock development aimed to develop a technology for a sustainable supply of good quality captive broodstock through selective breeding. Initial efforts identified polymorphic stocks with low disease prevalence as base population and development of screening protocol to assess their health status using non-lethal procedures. Improvement of reproductive performance through studies on nutritional requirements and sperm quality was also conducted. To refine shrimp culture systems, emphasis was placed on the physiological requirements of tiger shrimp, including salinity adaptation and osmoregulatory capabilities, improvement of formulated diets, and development of culture systems that are compatible with the environment. In shrimp health management, disease problems in various culture systems with emphasis on luminescent vibriosis and some viruses were defined. The quality of hatchery-reared post-larvae compared with those caught in the wild was assessed.

    Research on the mud crab Scylla serrata started late in 1996. Studies were conducted on all culture phases: broodstock, hatchery, nursery, and grow-out. Broodstock development emphasized the development of an appropriate maturation system and a suitable maturation diet. The influence of eyestalk ablation and dietary history on reproductive performance was assessed. The completion of the mud crab life cycle in captivity was attained in 1997 when spawns from pond-reared females were further reared to produce second-generation broodstock. In the hatchery, larval rearing based on previous trials on feeding schemes, salinity tolerance, and water conditioning hastened progress in larviculture and formed the basis for large-scale production of mud crab juveniles. Research has shown the feasibility of direct stocking of crab megalopae in hapa nets in nursery ponds. In grow-out culture, studies have been done on the effects of stocking density, monosex culture, and practical diet development for the mud crab. Practical diets, formulated using local materials as ingredients, with or without vitamin and mineral supplementation, were found to be economically feasible for mud crab culture in ponds. Grow-out culture in mangrove pens appears to be an environment-friendly alternative to the usual open pond culture system.
  • Conference paper

    Developments in seaweed farming in Southeast Asia 

    RS Simbajon & MA Ricohermoso - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    During the last thirty years, seaweed farming has progressed in the region comprising the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Farm production reached a high of 146,500 mt of dried seaweeds in 1997 from an initial harvest of 500 mt in 1973. In 1997, the ASEAN region produced about 90% of the world s production of carrageenophyte seaweed, providing raw materials for the US$35O million world carrageenan market. Two species of carrageenophytes, Kappaphycus alvarezii (=Eucheuma cottonii) and Eucheuma denticulatum (=Eucheuma spinosum), constitute the base of the seaweed industry in the region. K. alvarezii is predominantly farmed in the Philippines and Malaysia while E. denticulatum is dominant in Indonesia. Vegetative propagation is still applied in all farmed species of carrageenophytes, while the monoline method remains the most popular method of farming. Non-traditional farming areas have been established in central and northern Philippines and in Sabah, Malaysia. The culture technology has been developed for Gracilaria sp.; however, no up-to-date reports on production are available. Seaweed farming has become one of the most important sources of livelihood for at least 100,000 coastal families in Southeast Asia, contributing apparently to the reduction of blast and cyanide fishing and to the relative improvement of peace and order in seaweed farming areas.
  • Conference paper

    Research on marine fishes 

    JD Toledo - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Research on marine fishes at SEAFDEC/AQD from 1995 to date was mostly on milkfish Chanos chanos. Studies focused on the refinement of broodstock and seed production techniques to improve egg and larval production as well as to eliminate morphological deformities in hatchery-bred fry. A verification study with former shrimp hatchery operators demonstrated the technical and economic viability of the AQD-generated milkfish hatchery technology. Production and efficiency of semi-intensive grow-out in ponds were enhanced by the use of formulated feeds and appropriate feeding scheme. Milkfish farming in the Philippines was critically reviewed and recommendations to sustain milkfish culture production were made. Tobacco dust and metaldehyde formulation were proposed as alternatives to organotin-based pesticides in controlling the population of pond snail. The growth hormone of milkfish has been isolated and purified.

    Addition of highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA)-rich oils in the diet did not improve the quality of spawned eggs of grouper Epinephelus coioides. A protocol for the intensive larval rearing of grouper was developed based on the results of several studies. A semi-intensive seed production method using copepod nauplii during the early feeding stages was also developed as an alternative to intensive method. Metamorphosis of larvae was significantly accelerated by exogenous thyroid hormones. Nutritional studies to reduce the amount of fish meal in grouper diets are in progress. Groupers grown in ponds or cages harbor a variety of parasites.

    Biochemical criteria to assess the quality of spawned Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer eggs was characterized. Diaphanosoma or other copepods may be an alternative or supplemental live prey to Artemia during sea bass larviculture. A practical diet for sea bass culture was developed. Studies to determine the essential amino acid requirements of sea bass are about to be completed. The effects of immuno-stimulants in sea bass are presented.

    Induced and natural spawning of mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus in concrete tanks or floating net cages has been documented. An improved larval rearing method has been developed using screened rotifers during the early feeding stage of the larvae. Exogenous thyroid hormones have advanced metamorphosis of larvae. A practical diet for snapper is under development.

    Research on rabbitfish Siganus guttatus were geared to developing tools for growth enhancement. Pituitary growth hormone (GH) has been cloned, allowing the production of recombinant rabbitfish GH. Rabbitfish prolactin, somatolactin have also been purified.

    Studies on marine ornamental fish focused on two species of seahorses, Hippocampus kuda and H. barbouri, and on blue tang Paracanthurus hepatus. Progress on the biology, breeding, and seed production of seahorses are presented. Successive natural spawnings of blue tang in concrete circular tank have been recorded.
  • Conference paper

    Markets and marketing trends for aquaculture products in Southeast Asia 

    S Pawiro - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Despite the fact that Southeast Asian countries are among the main producers and exporters of fish and fishery products in the world, the region has also increasingly become an important market. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), imports of fish and fishery products into countries comprising the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) increased from only US$471 million in 1984 to more than US$2 billion in 1997. High per capita fish consumption, huge market size (population), increasingly strong purchasing power, coupled with relatively liberal trade policies are among the factors behind this trend.

    Even though the economic crisis in the region has scaled down the degree of market expansion for the last two years, it has, on the other hand, provided trade opportunities among the regional countries for fishery products, including those from aquaculture. Ten species are being cultured commercialIy in the region, but only a few are important in the intra-regional trade.

    Shrimp, particularly black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), is the most important species being cultured and traded in the region, both in terms of volume and value. The other major species are carps, tilapia, and milkfish, but these are mostly consumed locally and only a limited quantity is traded between countries in the region. Meanwhile, cultured Asian sea bass, grouper, snappers and mud crab are relatively small in production, but these are important species in the intraregional trade.

    This paper reviews the current trends in Southeast/Far East Asian markets for major aquaculture products, including marketing issues on demand and product trends, safety and quaIity issues as well as marketing access in major Asian markets.
  • Conference paper

    Mangrove-friendly aquaculture studies at the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department 

    AT Triño & JH Primavera - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    The SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department studies on mangrove-friendly aquaculture (MFA) can be categorized under two models: a) mangrove filters where mangrove forests are used to absorb effluents from high-density culture ponds, and b) aquasilviculture or the low-density culture of crabs, shrimp and fish integrated with mangroves. In a study using the first model, shrimp pond effluents were retained in an enclosed mangrove area prior to release to receiving waters. Nutrients and other water quality parameters, and bacterial levels were monitored in the untreated effluents and post-mangrove water.

    In the second MFA model, mangrove pens and ponds installed in old growth and newly regenerating mangrove sites in Aklan, central Philippines were stocked with mud crab Scylla olivacea/S. tranquebarica and shrimp Penaeus monodon. Investment costs, survival and production, and cost-return analysis for the pens and ponds are reported in the paper. Aside from the aquasilviculture trials in collaboration with local government units, other activities in the Aklan mangrove sites are the survey and mapping of the 75-ha area in Ibajay, construction of a treehouse, and the educational use as field site by Coastal Resource Management trainees of SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department and field biology students of the University of the Philippines in the Visayas.
  • Conference paper

    Health management for sustainable aquaculture 

    S Chinabut - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Aquaculture is a dynamic activity. To be successful and sustainable in this business, new techniques have to be continually developed, and adopted by farmers. Over the last decade, sustainability has become a key word for many different activities, including aquaculture. Many factors are involved in aquaculture sustainability, and health management has an important role among these. In order for aquatic animal health management at the farm level to aid the achievement of optimum yields, the following issues should be considered: suitable site selection, quality of broodstock and seed, reasonable stocking density, feed and feeding programme, water management, prophylactic and therapeutic treatment, and information dissemination. The sustainability of aquaculture at the national and regional levels requires different considerations among which are national policy, assistance priorities for farmers, legislation needs, technology development, and information needs.
  • Conference paper

    Developments in sustainable shrimp farming in Southeast Asia 

    H Kongkeo & M Phillips - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    In Southeast Asia, shrimp aquaculture has been practiced for many years and is a traditional coastal farming activity in several countries. The recent trend has been towards more intensive forms of culture resulting in a number of problems. However, experiences in the region suggest that shrimp farming can be socially, environmentally and economically sustainable and contribute to the production of food and alleviation of poverty in coastal areas, provided that appropriate management practices are adopted. Technical, economic, social and environmental issues have to be considered in the development and implementation of such management practices.

    In the light of serious shrimp disease problems which have affected shrimp farming worldwide, and various environmental and social interactions, some have concluded that shrimp farming development in the region has not been completely sustainable. This paper provides background on the major sustainability issues and management strategies which need to be considered in the development of sustainable shrimp aquaculture. Good farm management practices such as farm siting, construction and design, seed quality, feed and fertilizer, water management, sediment management, shrimp health management practices, and efficient use of inputs and resources should be voluntarily followed and monitored. In order to maintain social harmony and minimize environmental impacts, integration of aquaculture into coastal area management as well as appropriate zoning, policies, regulations and legislation should be allowed for a balanced coastal development. Furthermore, active cooperation among farmers and their involvement in policy setting and planning for coastal development can contribute to better understanding of key issues and promotion of better management practices.

    Fortunately, awareness and experience in sustainable management of coastal shrimp aquaculture in Southeast Asia is growing, and a number of local, national and regional initiatives are being taken to develop and implement improved management practices. At international levels, the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries Responsible Fisheries (CCRF), adopted in 1995 as a global inter-governmental consensus on the promotion of sustainable fisheries and aquaculture developments, provides a framework of basic principles and norms which all stakeholders concerned with shrimp culture can use as a common platform for better understanding, consultation and collaboration. Examples of recent efforts by NACA, in cooperation with FAO and other interested partners, in the implementation of the CCRF are given, and suggestions are provided to further promote the sustainable development of shrimp culture. A number of researchable issues on sustainable shrimp aquaculture are also reiterated for discussion in this seminar-workshop.
  • Conference paper

    Developments in integrated aquaculture in Southeast Asia 

    CK Lin & Y Yi - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Integrated aquaculture is inclusive of interactive utilization of resources and ecosystems in the artificial rearing of aquatic animals and plants. By the nature, purpose and scale of the operation, integrated fish culture can be categorized into five major modes. One is the traditional small-scale subsistence farming where fish are produced by recycling on-farm wastes in ponds or rice field, two is recycling of human excreta, three is the industrialized commercial operation by integrating medium and large-scale poultry or livestock farms with ponds for fish production, four is integration of aquaculture with natural ecosystems, e.g., shrimp culture with mangroves, cage and pen culture in lakes, cove culture in reservoirs. The fifth is environmental-oriented integration, where waste effluents from intensive aquaculture ponds are recycled to improve water quality and to grow filter feeder/ herbivores or macrophytes as secondary crops. This paper presents concepts and practical examples for some of these systems.
  • Conference paper

    Community-based Fishery Resources Management Project in Malalison Island: institutional arrangements for fisheries co-management 

    RF Agbayani & AS Babol - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    The paper discusses the monitoring mechanism of the SEAFDEC/AQD Community-based Fisheries Resources Management (CFRM) Project at Malalison Island in west central Philippines. The objective of the project was to learn from the collaboration of community organizations, biologists, and social scientists in adapting aquaculture and fishery management techniques and to assess the replicability of the experience to other fishing communities.

    The monitoring mechanism used was Process Documentation Research (PDR), a way of recording the development process of a project focusing on the participatory model of the resource management strategy. A full-time, site-based process documentator gathered information. All activities, meetings, and consultations were tape-recorded. Informal talks or encounters with the people were also recorded.

    The paper showed that PDR provided a better understanding and insight on the positive and negative perceptions of the project beneficiaries on the CFRM project. Unlike other research monitoring methods that match budget with accomplishments, PDR bares the feelings, hopes, and fears of the project beneficiaries regarding the impact of the project on their lives.
  • Conference paper

    Biological hazard possibly produced by aquaculture and its control 

    Y Inui - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Blooms of Neterocapsa circularisquama, a novel dinoflagellate, have been causing mass mortality of both wild and cultured shellfish in embayments at the western part of Japan since 1988. Physiological and epidemiological studies suggest that the alga has been partly dispersed with the movement of shellfish in aquaculture activities.

    A recent outbreak of an epizootic iridovirus in red sea bream (Pagrus major) has caused extensive damage to marine fish culture in Japan. A research group at the National Research Institute of Aquaculture (NRIA), collaborating with prefectural fisheries research laboratories and an R&D company, clarified the etiology and developed a diagnostic method and a commercial vaccine.

    Penaeid acute viremia (PAV), a synonym of white spot syndrome, caused catastrophic loses in kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) culture in Japan. An epidemiological study of the research group at NRIA and the prefectural fisheries research laboratories strongly suggests that the causative virus was newly introduced to Japan from imported shrimp seeds for aquaculture. The group clarified the etiology and established diagnostic methods. Based on their studies, NRIA proposed a protocol to check the virus during larval culture and before seedlings are shipped.
  • Conference paper

    Research on freshwater fishes 

    CB Santiago, ZU Basiao & JD Tan-Fermin - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Studies on tilapias focused on the refinement of strain comparison methods, refinement and pilot-testing of broodstock improvement procedure, selective breeding and evaluation of red tilapias, genetic variability determination in hatchery-bred tilapia and the development of criteria for tilapia fingerling quality assessment.

    On carps, feeding of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) to enhance reproductive performance was done and stunting was applied as a technique in broodstock development. Studies on the tolerance of bighead carp fry to low salinities were conducted. Free-living nematodes were tested as alternative larval food. The culture potential of grass carp in lake-based cages was also determined.

    Research on the native catfish (Clarias macrocephalus) focused on endocrine studies during the final stages of maturation. Hatchery techniques were refined by identification of factors that increase fry production. Practical diets were developed for broodstock, hatchery, nursery and grow-out phases. A collaborative project on the ecological impact of African catfish (C. gariepinus) introduction in natural waters was undertaken.

    The occurrence of EUS (epizootic ulcerative syndrome) among wild fishes in Laguna Lake decreases the marketability of both wild and cultured fishes from the lake. Hence, the bacteria and virus associated with EUS and their virulence, modes of disease transmission, developmental stages of dermal lesions and hematological changes in severely affected fish were studied.

    Laguna Lake, where fish catch and aquaculture production contribute significantly to the country s total freshwater fish production, has been the focus of extensive ecological research in collaboration with other local and foreign research and academic institutions.
  • Conference paper

    Developments in freshwater fish culture in Southeast Asia 

    F Cholik - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Aquaculture has been practiced for more than a century in a few countries of Southeast Asia (Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and Singapore). Currently, the industry is carried out in various ecosystems such as ponds, paddy fields, raceways, fish pen and cages in freshwater, brackishwater, and marine environments. Developments in freshwater finfish culture in Southeast Asia are becoming prominent. With respect to finfish culture in freshwater, Southeast Asia is showing prominent development. Freshwater fish culture production in the region accounted for 4.4% of the total world freshwater fish and shellfish culture production. In 1997, world freshwater fish culture production amounted to 16,212,730 mt. An indicator of development is the increasing number of the cultured species. In 1988, the number of freshwater fish species cultured in the region was not more than 34 species, but a decade later the list has become longer, attaining more than 36 species. The major ones are common carp and Nile tilapia. These two species are widely cultured in the region. Eight of 10 Southeast Asian countries culture common carp and Nile tilapia. Further diversification of cultured species is still widely open since there are more than a dozen freshwater fish species available in rivers and lakes in the region that are potential candidates for aquaculture. The success in mass production of fry in the hatchery in some Southeast Asian countries has contributed much to these developments in freshwater fish aquaculture in the region, owing to the application of advances in science and technology. Supports from ancillary industries such as feed mill plants, cold and ice storage, etc. and the development of networking that rapidly disseminates information and aquaculture technologies within and outside the region have also contributed to the development of freshwater fish culture in Southeast Asia. Nonetheless, there are constraints to further development and these are discussed in this paper.
  • Conference paper

    Responsible aquaculture development for the next millennium 

    AGJ Tacon & UC Barg - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    With the world population doubling in size from 3 to 6 billion people from 1960 to 1999 and currently growing at 1.33% per year (or an annual net addition of 78 million people), and expected to reach 7.3 to 10.7 billion by 2050 (with 8.9 billion considered most likely), there are growing doubts as to the long term sustainability of many traditional agricultural food production systems in being able to meet the increasing global demand for food. Nowhere is this more critical than within many of the world s developing countries, and in particular within those Low-income Food-deficit countries (LIFDC ; currently representing over 62% of the world s population), which are net importers of food and lack sufficient earnings to purchase food to cover their basic dietary needs. Of the multitude of agricultural food production systems, aquaculture is widely viewed as being an important potential candidate capable of contributing to reductions in the shortfall in the terrestrial food basket. Aquaculture, the farming of aquatic plants and animals, has been the fastest growing food production sector for over a decade. Total global production from aquaculture more than tripled from 10 million metric tons (mmt) in 1984 to over 36 mmt in 1997, and production grew at an average compound rate of 1 l% per year since 1984. In contrast to traditional livestock food production systems, the bulk of global aquaculture is realised within developing countries (89.6% total) and LIFDCs (80.6% total).

    Despite its good prospects and apparent potential for continued growth, the aquaculture sector has not been without its problems and critics. In particular, there have been concerns raised related to deficiencies in existing aquaculture legislation and planning methods, the use of certain farming practices, issues of resource use efficiency, disease treatment and control, environmental degradation, social welfare, and employment opportunities, etc. Although the majority of these are not unique to the aquaculture sector, it is imperative that these issues be addressed and resolved if the sector is to emerge into a major global food production sector in the next millennium.

    In addition, the present paper reviews the origins and salient features of the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF), and in particular of Article 9 of CCRF concerning aquaculture development. An overview is also presented of ongoing and planned initiatives concerning the implementation of the code. In particular, the paper attempts to consider the existing socioeconomic conditions of the majority of aquaculture producing countries within the Asian region, and the real basic need of identifying affordable and practical solutions to aid the development of the sector. Particular emphasis is placed on the need of government to provide an enabling economic and legislative environment and umbrella for the sustainable and responsible development of the sector, and the need for increased collaboration between the private and public sector organizations, and government engaged in all stages of the aquaculture development process.
  • Conference paper

    Community-based coral farming for reef rehabilitation, biodiversity conservation and as a livelihood option for fisherfolk 

    T Heeger, FB Sotto, JL Gatus & C Laron - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    The present condition of marine resources in the Philippines is critical and a majority of coastal communities live below the poverty line. If it continues, the progressive degradation of coral reefs and overexploitation poses a dangerous trend. Coastal resource management strategies are facing a new challenge: the integration of social, economic and natural sciences in future concepts to reverse the current status of ecosystem destruction and improvement of the people s living conditions. Hence, the primary objective of the coral farm is to provide alternative livelihood to fisher families from their resources on a sustained basis. The second objective is the rehabilitation of degraded reefs. Currently coral colonies of 64 species are taken through fragmentation from the wild. After 6-12 weeks (depending on the species) of grow-out in the farm, the fragments were deployed at the rehabilitation site at an average of 2 fragments per square meter (=12.5% cover). The survival of fragments is high at 84%, despite the fact that some coral colonies were placed in unsuitable substrates by the fisherfolk. More trainings have to be conducted improve their knowledge of coral biology and community structure. The net cost of rehabilitating a one-hectare reef is U$2,100 for 12.5% cover. Additional profit from coral marketing is used for community projects identified by the folk. In this case, coral farming may be an option for livelihood and a cost-effective tool for reef rehabilitation.

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