Community-based coral farming for reef rehabilitation, biodiversity conservation and as a livelihood option for fisherfolk
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The present condition of marine resources in the Philippines is critical and a majority of coastal communities live below the poverty line. If it continues, the progressive degradation of coral reefs and overexploitation poses a dangerous trend. Coastal resource management strategies are facing a new challenge: the integration of social, economic and natural sciences in future concepts to reverse the current status of ecosystem destruction and improvement of the people s living conditions. Hence, the primary objective of the coral farm is to provide alternative livelihood to fisher families from their resources on a sustained basis. The second objective is the rehabilitation of degraded reefs. Currently coral colonies of 64 species are taken through fragmentation from the wild. After 6-12 weeks (depending on the species) of grow-out in the farm, the fragments were deployed at the rehabilitation site at an average of 2 fragments per square meter (=12.5% cover). The survival of fragments is high at 84%, despite the fact that some coral colonies were placed in unsuitable substrates by the fisherfolk. More trainings have to be conducted improve their knowledge of coral biology and community structure. The net cost of rehabilitating a one-hectare reef is U$2,100 for 12.5% cover. Additional profit from coral marketing is used for community projects identified by the folk. In this case, coral farming may be an option for livelihood and a cost-effective tool for reef rehabilitation.
Heeger, T., Sotto, F. B., Gatus, J. L., & Laron, C. (2001). Community-based coral farming for reef rehabilitation, biodiversity conservation and as a livelihood option for fisherfolk. In L. M. B. Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia organized by the Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines (pp. 133-145). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/1811
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Conference paperED Gomez, PC Cabaitan & KC Vicentuan - In JH Primavera, ET Quinitio & MR Eguia (Eds.), Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Stock Enhancement for Threatened Species of International Concern, Iloilo City, Philippines, 13-15 July 2005, 2006 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterRecently, the Pew Project (2001 to 2005) of the senior author entitled ‘Coral reef habitat and productivity enhancement through coral transplantation and giant clam restocking’ was implemented with the aim to improve the biodiversity and productivity of stressed coral reef habitats in 10 selected demonstration sites in the Philippines. These were meant to serve as models for other communities. Transplantation of corals and reseeding of giant clams were the approaches. Nubbins or small fragments from nearby large coral colonies and abundant solitary forms were transplanted to the target sites. Care was exercised to avoid or reduce any negative impacts on the natural source communities. Only cultured giant clams were used, specifically the threatened Tridacna gigas at sizes that would ensure their chances of survival in the wild (approximately 20-30 cm shell length). Following deployment, monitoring activities were undertaken, focusing on macro-invertebrates and fish, as well as the assessment of the survival and growth of experimental animals. Liaison work was done with local communities to raise their environmental awareness and to ensure their cooperation. This manuscript draws principally from results of the Pew Project. At present, two other restoration projects supported by the European Union and the Global Environment Facility Coral Reef Targeted Research Project are being implemented at the Bolinao Marine Laboratory of the University of the Philippines Marine Science Institute (UP-MSI) in Pangasinan. These projects are testing the efficiency of floating and standing coral nurseries in growing coral nubbins in addition to transplanting fragments or branches of corals to restore degraded coral reefs.
ArticleCL Marte & YP Tirol -
UPV Journal of Natural Sciences, 2006 - University of the Philippines in the VisayasAn assessment of the extensive fringing reefs surrounding Mararison lsland, Culasi, Antique was undertaken in 1994 to 1996 and in 1998 to provide scientific basis for management and enhancement of the island s resources as part of the Community Fisheries Resource Management project launched in 1991. The fringing reefs on the northwest side of the island are characterized by high percent coral cover (53-65%) consisting of very diverse coral species. The dominant forms are branching non-Acropora,with numerous small colonies of other coral forms. In contrast, the southeast side of the island fronting the fishing village is depau perate (4.7 -17.6% coral cover) with few small colonies of encrusting and massive corals characteristic of stressed reefs. However, highest coral cover consisting of dense stands of branching Acropora interspersed with branching non-Acropora was observed along the reef slope of Nablag station located at the western end of the island. Coral cover in the offshore reef (Guiob) was relatively fair (24%-46%). A total of 166 scleractinian corals were seen although only few species occurred frequently or provided high percent coral cover. Following the bleaching event of 1998, dramatic decreases (30%-61%) in live coral cover, particularly along the reef slopes, were observed in all stations.
A preliminary study on the diagnosis of coral reef healthiness and establishment of coral replenishment technology T Azuma, JJR Tan, J Zarate, J Altamirano, J Gatus & F Sotto - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterField surveys for coral reef through line-intercept-transect (LIT) and temperature profiling using data-loggers were done at three layers of 5, 10, and 15 m depths in coral reef areas, Nogas Island, Anini-y, Antique, Philippines. Preliminary data based on the LIT survey showed that both coverages of substrates by any type of organism and by Scleractinia decreased in the deeper layers. For Scleractinia, Porites sp. occurred predominantly in all the depth layers with the occurrence decreasing with depth. Temperature fluctuation was largest in the 5 m depth layer, where effects of tidal level were also confirmed. While the average temperature decreased with depth, this did not differ beyond 1°C between 5 and 15 m layers during November 2012 to March 2013. Fragments of the Porites sp. and Acropora sp. were sampled and transferred to aquaria at the Tigbauan Main Station of SEAFDEC/AQD. Acropora sp. sampled from the deepest layer alone showed bleaching and thereafter, a part of the fragments regained the color. Experimental trials to clarify the effects of ocean acidification and warming on the health of the coral using the live fragments of Porites sp. showed decreasing trends in both photosynthetic rates and daily growth rates in acidic condition (pH = 7.6), while decrease of zooxanthellae density was observed under warmer conditions (31°C ) for one month. A new methodology for the determination of density of zooxanthellae was established using the fragments of Porites sp. In this study, the need for studies on several coral communities as well as further basic research on coral biology, particularly, responses to the changing environments are discussed for diagnosis of coral reef healthiness and establishment of effective coral replenishment technology.