2010 and beyond: better seeds for sustainable aquatic food production in Asia.
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Asia is a major contributor to world aquaculture production. Most Asian countries have maintained their rank in the ten top aquatic food producing nations after developing refined techniques for major commercially important aquaculture species and promoting an increased awareness on the merits of using quality seeds (genetically enhanced or otherwise) as supplied in sufficient quantities. Quality seedstock simply means fit, clean , uniformly-sized seeds which could be eggs, fry, fingerling, juveniles and/or plantlets (for seaweeds) that subsequently express good performance attributes during culture. Beneficial traits refer to good color, shape, growth, efficient feed conversion, high reproduction, tolerance and survival when exposed to stressors (e.g. diseases, poor and/or extreme environmental conditions). Such traits are mostly heritable, hence, quality seeds are usually assumed as produced only by mating stocks perceived or proven to be genetically superior. Some bloodstocks may be genetically mediocre but if bred and manage properly through efficient farm protocols (suitable hatchery, nursery feeding and water management methods), may also produce good quality seeds. Success in the sustainable production of aquatic species for human consumption depends primarily on the availability of seedstock and adoption of optimal husbandry techniques among others. With the intensification of aquaculture systems and the environmental challenges such as those resulting from climate change, it is wise to continue considering both factors -- genetic quality and culture management as equally important in ensuring a steady production of good quality seeds and later, marketable products from aquaculture. Views on what, how and why better quality aquaculture seeds should be produced evolve as times change. To understand these concerns, this paper will cover: (a) the present state of fish seed production in Asia, (b) recent and current seedstock production issues that require attention, and (c) recommendations on how to further enhance aquaculture production in the region in the next decade through better quality seedstock.
Romana-Eguia, M. R. R., & de Jesus-Ayson, E. G. T. (2011). 2010 and beyond: better seeds for sustainable aquatic food production in Asia. In B. O. Acosta, R. M. Coloso, E. G. T. de Jesus-Ayson, & J. D. Toledo (Eds.), Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020 (pp. 1-15). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/1819
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Conference paperCL Marte - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterMilkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) remains one of the cheapest sources of protein for developing countries in Southeast Asia, particularly in the Philippines. The unpredictable supply of wild fry, the only source of seed for the milkfish farmer, contributed largely to the slow growth of the milkfish industry. Research on the artificial propagation of this fish was, therefore, given emphasis. Major research achievements in milkfish breeding of the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department in the last decade include: (1) successful induced spawning of wild and captive breeders using gonadotropin preparations and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa); (2) spontaneous maturation and spawning of captive breeders; (3) completion of the life cycle of milkfish in captivity; (4) development of a simple egg-collecting method; and (5) development of techniques for mass production of milkfish fry. Information on fry ecology and behavior, larval morphology and physiology were also gathered. These published data constitute the bulk of current knowledge on milkfish biology and natural history. Milkfish breeding technology is currently being pilot-tested in several breeding sites of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR). Spontaneous maturation and spawning of milkfish have been verified in four sites which differ in environmental characteristics. The economic feasibility of producing milkfish fry and the socio-economic impact of artificial propagation of milkfish are now being assessed.
Conference paperET Quinitio - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterMud crab farming has long been established in the Philippines and the country is the second top producer in the world. Except for Scylla paramamosain, the three other species, S. serrata, S. tranquebarica and S. olivacea are commonly found in the country, but S. serrata is the preferred species for farming. Crab seeds for farming are mainly from the wild and in recent years, a small percentage from the hatchery. Due to the apparent decline of the wild crab stocks, provincial and municipal ordinances have been issued by a number of Local Government Units (LGUs) along with the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) to conserve and manage the remaining resources. From the hatchery, megalopa or crab instars are grown in net cages installed in the nursery pond. Mud crab farming engages mostly in long-term grow-out culture of juvenile crabs to market size for 3-5 months, short-term fattening of lean crabs for 15-45 days, and recently, soft-shell crab production. Polyculture of juvenile crabs to market size with one to three other commodities in earthen brackishwater ponds is usually practiced. Mud crabs for soft-shell crab production are mainly from the wild, while SEAFDEC/AQD demonstrates the use of hatchery-produced juvenile mud crabs as seedstock. Refinement is continuously being done to improve the economic viability of producing crabs, although basic technologies have been developed for all phases of culture (hatchery, nursery, grow-out, fattening and soft shell crab production). The major issues facing the industry are the lack of seedstock, difficulty of zoea 5 to molt to megalopa stage, cannibalism particularly at the nursery phase, species identification at the juvenile stage, use of fish as aquafeed, diseases, effects of climate change and quality of crabs at postharvest. In 2012, the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) started funding projects under the National Mud Crab Science and Technology Program (NMCSTP) to address these issues. The major aim of the Program was to improve the production, profitability and sustainability of crab farming. SEAFDEC/AQD leads in capacity building with focus on the sustainability of the mud crab industry. Various collaborations and research studies on mud crab culture enabled SEAFDEC/AQD to package mud crab technologies, conduct local and international training courses and on-site technology demonstrations, and publish extension manuals and scientific publications since the mid1990s. Research and Development activities have been translated into improved production. With the recent developments and refinements of technologies, it is expected that the Philippines will increase its production by 25-50% in the next 5 years.
Adoption of modified commercial scale mud crab hatchery and nursery systems in Alaminos City, Pangasinan RB Cerezo & JF Rebugio - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterPangasinan’s vast fishpond and mangrove areas have not been fully tapped for mud crab (Scylla serrata) production. The main reason identified for this is the limited supply of crab seedstock. At present, there is no reliable source of seedstock in Pangasinan. The total requirement of Pangasinan for crab seedstock is estimated at 8.89 million based on the total area (ha) devoted to mud crab polyculture in the province. Mud crab growers in Pangasinan procure wild juvenile crabs from Cagayan, Bicol and Visayas but the volume is limited. Thus, an adoption of a modified commercial scale mud crab hatchery and nursery systems in Alaminos City would be helpful. A model mud crab hatchery will be constructed to enable the local government unit (LGU) of Alaminos City to produce seedstock in commercial quantity to boost the production in Pangasinan and nearby provinces. The hatchery aims to produce 480,000 juvenile crabs per year to supply the nursery and grow-out ponds. Likewise, the hatchery technology will promote the mud crab hatchery and nursery technologies in the city of Pangasinan and coastal towns (Infanta, Dasol, Burgos, Agno, Bolinao, Anda, Bani, Sual, Labrador, Lingayen, Binmaley, Dagupan City and San Fabian), and nearby provinces of La Union, Ilocos Sur, Ilocos Norte and Zambales.