2010 and beyond: better seeds for sustainable aquatic food production in Asia.
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Asia is a major contributor to world aquaculture production. Most Asian countries have maintained their rank in the ten top aquatic food producing nations after developing refined techniques for major commercially important aquaculture species and promoting an increased awareness on the merits of using quality seeds (genetically enhanced or otherwise) as supplied in sufficient quantities. Quality seedstock simply means fit, clean , uniformly-sized seeds which could be eggs, fry, fingerling, juveniles and/or plantlets (for seaweeds) that subsequently express good performance attributes during culture. Beneficial traits refer to good color, shape, growth, efficient feed conversion, high reproduction, tolerance and survival when exposed to stressors (e.g. diseases, poor and/or extreme environmental conditions). Such traits are mostly heritable, hence, quality seeds are usually assumed as produced only by mating stocks perceived or proven to be genetically superior. Some bloodstocks may be genetically mediocre but if bred and manage properly through efficient farm protocols (suitable hatchery, nursery feeding and water management methods), may also produce good quality seeds. Success in the sustainable production of aquatic species for human consumption depends primarily on the availability of seedstock and adoption of optimal husbandry techniques among others. With the intensification of aquaculture systems and the environmental challenges such as those resulting from climate change, it is wise to continue considering both factors -- genetic quality and culture management as equally important in ensuring a steady production of good quality seeds and later, marketable products from aquaculture. Views on what, how and why better quality aquaculture seeds should be produced evolve as times change. To understand these concerns, this paper will cover: (a) the present state of fish seed production in Asia, (b) recent and current seedstock production issues that require attention, and (c) recommendations on how to further enhance aquaculture production in the region in the next decade through better quality seedstock.
Romana-Eguia, M. R. R., & de Jesus-Ayson, E. G. T. (2011). 2010 and beyond: better seeds for sustainable aquatic food production in Asia. In B. O. Acosta, R. M. Coloso, E. G. T. de Jesus-Ayson, & J. D. Toledo (Eds.), Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020 (pp. 1-15). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/1819
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Conference paperHS Sitoy - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis paper reviews the works on mussel and oyster culture conducted from 1975 to 1985 by the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department at Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines. Innovative techniques developed in increasing collection of natural seeds and in improving farming techniques are presented. Results of the work on artificial seed production, bacterial depuration, uptake and elimination of heavy metals by green mussel, investigations on red tides, and microbiology of spoilage are discussed.
Conference paperCL Marte - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterMilkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) remains one of the cheapest sources of protein for developing countries in Southeast Asia, particularly in the Philippines. The unpredictable supply of wild fry, the only source of seed for the milkfish farmer, contributed largely to the slow growth of the milkfish industry. Research on the artificial propagation of this fish was, therefore, given emphasis. Major research achievements in milkfish breeding of the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department in the last decade include: (1) successful induced spawning of wild and captive breeders using gonadotropin preparations and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa); (2) spontaneous maturation and spawning of captive breeders; (3) completion of the life cycle of milkfish in captivity; (4) development of a simple egg-collecting method; and (5) development of techniques for mass production of milkfish fry. Information on fry ecology and behavior, larval morphology and physiology were also gathered. These published data constitute the bulk of current knowledge on milkfish biology and natural history. Milkfish breeding technology is currently being pilot-tested in several breeding sites of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR). Spontaneous maturation and spawning of milkfish have been verified in four sites which differ in environmental characteristics. The economic feasibility of producing milkfish fry and the socio-economic impact of artificial propagation of milkfish are now being assessed.
Recent developments and enhancing transfer of the nursery technology for the mud crab Scylla serrata FD Parado-Estepa, V Alava, E Garibay, C Bejemino, J Sumile, J Silvestre & ET Quinitio - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe development of hatchery techniques for seed production of mud crab is expected to address the present problem on the depletion of wild seedstock supply for stocking in grow-out ponds. The nursery serves as the link between the two phases of culture as this involves growing of juvenile crabs produced in the hatchery to sizes that are suitable for stocking in the ponds.Nursery rearing involves the use of net cages installed in ponds as holding system for ease in harvest and retrieval of crabs. In the first nursery phase, 0.3-0.5 cm carapace width (CW) juvenile crabs are reared to 1.5-2.0 cm CW for 3-4 weeks and stocks are harvested for selling or are grown further in a second nursery phase in which crabs reach 2.5-3.0 cm after another 3-4 weeks. This paper includes a review of techniques initially developed for the nursery and more recent refinements which involve the use of higher crab instar densities, provision of suitable shelters, trimming of claws and sorting. In addition, production results in farms of collaborators are presented to highlight the efficiency of dissemination and also discusses the challenges faced by the potential nursery industry.