Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020 held from 17 to 19 March 2010 in Bangkok, Thailand

SEAFDEC/AQD, in collaboration with the SEAFDEC Secretariat, convened the Regional technical consultation on sustainable aquaculture development in Southeast Asia towards 2020 (RTC on Aquaculture) on March 17-19, 2010 in Bangkok, Thailand, as preparatory activity for the ASEAN/SEAFDEC Fish for the people 2020 conference. The RTC was held to follow-up the developments on aquaculture after the 2001 Millennium conference on fisheries and to define the strategies for sustainable aquaculture development in the next decade. Specifically, the RTC was held with the following objectives: (i) review the progress and development of aquaculture in the region since the 2001 Millennium conference; (ii) assess and identify the issues (including climate change) that need to be addressed in the next 10 years to sustain fisheries development; and to (iii) define the strategies needed to address gaps and in the context of emerging opportunities and emerging challenges faced by the region. This volume presents the outputs of the RTC on Aquaculture. The proceedings contain the papers presented at the meeting and a synopsis of plenary discussions on various themes that are relevant to aquaculture research and development in the region. The outputs of this meeting are expected to help guide SEAFDEC and its partners in coming up with the region’s resolution and plan of action for sustainable aquaculture development in the next decade.

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  • Book | Conference publication

    Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020 

    BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.) - 2011 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    This publication represents the proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation (RTC) on Aquaculture held in Bangkok, Thailand last 17-19 March 2010. The RTC was convened by the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC/AQD) as part of the preparatory undertakings for the ASEAN-SEAFDEC Conference on Fisheries held in June 2011. The main objectives of the RTC were to follow-up the developments of aquaculture in Southeast Asia after the 2001 ASEAN-SEAFDEC Millennium Conference on Fisheries and to define the strategic actions for the region s sustainable aquaculture development in the next decade. These proceedings contain 10 country papers and a summary status of implementation of the Resolution and Plan of Actions on six themes (supply of good quality seeds, environment-friendly aquaculture, getting out of the fish meal trap, healthy and wholesome aquaculture, biotechnology and rural aquaculture) which are the outcomes of the 2001 ASEAN-SEAFDEC Millennium Conference on Fisheries. It also presents the thematic papers and a synopsis of discussions on issues and recommendations on four thematic areas: (i) meeting social and economic challenges in aquaculture; (ii) quality seed production for sustainable aquaculture; (iii) healthy and wholesome aquaculture; and (iv) protecting the environment and adapting to climate change. These recommendations are expected to provide baseline information and directions in formulating the Resolution and Plan of Action (aquaculture component) for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020.
  • Conference paper

    Indonesa: Status of implementation of the resolution and plan of action on aquaculture. 

    K Sugama - In BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.), Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020, 2011 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Aquaculture has been the focus of fisheries development policy in Indonesia since the new Minister in the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries of Indonesia was decided in October 2009. The Ministry s vision is to increase aquaculture production up to 3.5 times for the period of five years (2009-2014) from 4.78 to 16.89 million mt (DGA 2009). The development of Indonesian aquaculture plays an increasingly important role in the country s economic growth through job creation and income generation, especially in rural areas. Several measures have been implemented to develop aquaculture, such as expansion of aquaculture areas, intensification of existing aquaculture facilities, production of good quality seeds, continued development of biotechnology for producing new species or strain, improved efficiency offered and use of locally available raw materials such as maggot meal, and development of technology on disease control using molecular tools. Also included are the improvement of farmer s education and awareness in implementation of Best management practices (BMPs) for sustainability, increased participation of farmers and private sector in aquaculture development, and provision of various financial schemes for aquaculture businesses.
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    Key issues and knowledge gaps on aquaculture that need to be addressed in the next decade. 

    BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.) - In BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.), Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020, 2011 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    This section gives the summary and conclusions (background, issues and recommendations) of the plenary presentations, panel discussions and open fora on the four themes: (1) meeting social and economic challenges, (2) quality seed production for sustainable aquaculture, (3) healthy and wholesome aquaculture and, (4) protecting the environment and adapting to climate change.
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    Cambodia: Status of implementation of the resolution and plan of action on aquaculture. 

    C Da - In BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.), Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020, 2011 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    The country s current national development plan (National Strategic Development Plan - NSDP) for 2006-2010 gives priority to addressing poverty alleviation and improving food security particularly of the rural farmers. In line with the NSDP s goal which is to ensure sustainable access to fisheries resources by the poor, the Fisheries Administration (FiA) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries has drafted the Strategic planning framework for fisheries: 2009-2018, which considers small-scale aquaculture as one of the most important approaches.

    Based on the NSDP, FiA will focus on aquaculture development and aquatic resources management for poverty reduction of the rural families in the entire country as well as the medium and large scale aquaculture development. The family aquaculture plays an important role in securing the animal protein requirement and generating cash income in the rural areas of Cambodia. On the other hand, the medium and large scale aquaculture are targeted to provide opportunities for the export market since Cambodia has a lot of potential for developing large scale aquaculture production.

    FiA has strongly considered the strategies of NSDP important particularly in the present time when the population is increasing and the country cannot meet the fish protein requirements capture fisheries alone.
  • Conference paper

    Brunei Darussalam: Status of implementation of the resolution and plan of action on aquaculture. 

    AR Metali - In BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.), Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020, 2011 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    The aquaculture industry in Brunei Darussalam consists of cage culture of marine fishes and pond culture of freshwater and marine shrimps. The government has established various facilities to promote, facilitate and sustain the development of the industry so it can play a vital role in achieving the overall food production target and diversification of the country s food supply. The development of technology on marine fish seed production and culture of high commercial-value marine fish species, especially the green and red grouper are one of the priorities of the Department of Fisheries (DoF). Moreover, the development of potential species for export and improvement of aquaculture facilities will also be given due attention. The country is now focusing on the following: (1) production not only of marine fishes but also of freshwater and ornamental fishes since most of these are imported from the neighboring countries; (2) commercial production of specific pathogen free (SPF) Litopenaeus stylirostris; and (3) development of off-shore cage culture industry.
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    Myanmar: Status of implementation of the resolution and plan of action on aquaculture. 

    H Win - In BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.), Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020, 2011 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    This report discusses the long term and short-term project plans for aquaculture development such as the expansion of farming area and management plan for supply of good quality seed through promotion of strains of parent major carp stocks. The report also includes the successful and unsuccessful activities on environment-friendly aquaculture such as mangrove-friendly shrimp culture and organic farming practices. Recognizing the impacts of aquaculture on environment and impacts of improper practices on market trends, Myanmar Department of Fisheries is formulating Good aquaculture practices (GAPs) based on experiences of other Asian countries.

    This report explains the role of human resource capabilities and development schemes at different levels and at the same time decentralization that enhances the necessary core expertise that will address issues on disease, nutrition, hatchery and grow-out technology. Moreover, the report expresses the promotion of livelihood of the rural people through small-scale aquaculture based on community and grass-root level through participatory approach. It reveals the future prospects and proposed concepts on resolution of emerging world climate challenges towards the economical and sustainable aquaculture development.
  • Conference paper

    2010 and beyond: better seeds for sustainable aquatic food production in Asia. 

    MRR Romana-Eguia & EGT de Jesus-Ayson - In BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.), Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020, 2011 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Asia is a major contributor to world aquaculture production. Most Asian countries have maintained their rank in the ten top aquatic food producing nations after developing refined techniques for major commercially important aquaculture species and promoting an increased awareness on the merits of using quality seeds (genetically enhanced or otherwise) as supplied in sufficient quantities. Quality seedstock simply means fit, clean , uniformly-sized seeds which could be eggs, fry, fingerling, juveniles and/or plantlets (for seaweeds) that subsequently express good performance attributes during culture. Beneficial traits refer to good color, shape, growth, efficient feed conversion, high reproduction, tolerance and survival when exposed to stressors (e.g. diseases, poor and/or extreme environmental conditions). Such traits are mostly heritable, hence, quality seeds are usually assumed as produced only by mating stocks perceived or proven to be genetically superior. Some bloodstocks may be genetically mediocre but if bred and manage properly through efficient farm protocols (suitable hatchery, nursery feeding and water management methods), may also produce good quality seeds. Success in the sustainable production of aquatic species for human consumption depends primarily on the availability of seedstock and adoption of optimal husbandry techniques among others. With the intensification of aquaculture systems and the environmental challenges such as those resulting from climate change, it is wise to continue considering both factors -- genetic quality and culture management as equally important in ensuring a steady production of good quality seeds and later, marketable products from aquaculture. Views on what, how and why better quality aquaculture seeds should be produced evolve as times change. To understand these concerns, this paper will cover: (a) the present state of fish seed production in Asia, (b) recent and current seedstock production issues that require attention, and (c) recommendations on how to further enhance aquaculture production in the region in the next decade through better quality seedstock.
  • Conference paper

    Meeting social and economic challenges on aquaculture in Southeast Asia. 

    R Tokrisna - In BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.), Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020, 2011 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Aquaculture production is an important source of fish protein. In Southeast Asia, aquaculture development can be both for local diets and for foreign exchange earnings. Production system is either small-scale or commercial scale. The social and economic issues that concern aquaculture development are the impacts (positive and negative) on natural physical and biological conditions, man-made physical conditions, income, employment, food, and human resources. The social and economic challenges on aquaculture development in Southeast Asia include maintaining the natural resources and environmental conditions for sustainable aquaculture; increasing "clean" productivity at farm level, taking into account the cost of externalities and environmental impact management; meeting the requirements of domestic and international market for aquaculture produce and products; non-tariff measures in international trade of aquatic products; adopting aquaculture certification scheme; understanding the linkages among production, marketing and trade; and strengthening the capacity of small-scale fish farmers.
  • Conference paper

    Status of implementation of the resolution and plan of action on aquaculture in Thailand. 

    R Yashiro, S Limthammahisorn & U Suntornratana - In BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.), Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020, 2011 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Aquaculture development in Thailand is based on the principle of balance and sustainability. The missions of aquaculture development include the development of fishery products from aquaculture to achieve international quality standards, enhanced sustainability of fishery products from aquaculture, stock enhancement of aquatic resources, and development of research and technology for aquaculture. The national directive aims at increasing production by 5% per year to provide at least 30 kg per person per year of food fish consumption. In recent years, Thailand aquaculture technology developments have increased not only in productivity but also in terms of quality and safety of products throughout the production line. Its development has become more harmonious with the natural environment and more consistent with socioeconomic development.

    With regard to supply of quality seeds on consistent and sustainable basis, the Department of Fisheries (DoF) supports both the government and private sector hatcheries to produce quality seeds. The Good aquaculture practices (GAPs) and Code of conduct (CoC) which comply with the environmental theme are also applied. Research for broodstock development is aimed at enhancing reproduction by nutritional manipulation and closed recycling water system for broodstock. Promotion of domestication and research in genetic manipulation for broodstock are practiced.

    Moreover, the regulations of feed quality control have been performed according to the Feed quality act (1982). The Good manufacture practices (GMPs) and HACCP for aqua-feed manufacturing are promoted as voluntary. Currently, the use of ingredients for bio-energy production is emerging in aqua-feed industry. Research to develop suitable alternative protein sources to reduce the use of fish meal is on-going and is being supported by DoF. The expanded scientific information and technology development designed for aquaculture offer significant benefits to both producers and consumers by enhancing the production efficiency and quality of cultivated aquatic species with appropriate culture practices.
  • Conference paper

    Philippines: Status of implementation of the resolution and plan of action on aquaculture. 

    GA Adora - In BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.), Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020, 2011 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    The aquaculture sector in the Philippines has remarkably grown in the last decade. It is now a prominent sector contributing significantly to the country s overall fisheries production. In 2008, aquaculture posted the highest production growth at 48.5% (2.4 million mt), followed by the municipal fisheries sector with 26.8% (1.3 million mt), and the commercial fisheries sector with 24.7% increase (1.2 million mt). Sustainable management of the sector is a primary concern because the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) recognizes that this tremendous growth in aquaculture production must be balanced with ecological considerations.

    This report outlines the major steps BFAR, as the agency mandated to protect aquatic resources and practice sustainable aquaculture in the Philippines, has taken towards the achievement of the objectives/themes outlined in a plan of action for aquaculture set during the 2001 ASEAN-SEAFDEC Fisheries millennium conference in Bangkok, Thailand.

    The country has gained significant strides in promoting environment-friendly aquaculture, especially with the promotion of the mariculture park projects. In line with this theme, policies to promote sustainable aquaculture and strategies to ensure healthy and wholesome aquaculture were formulated. Research, development and extension activities are in progress towards ensuring sustainable aquaculture and achieving the other commitments, as outlined in the Resolution and plan of action for the aquaculture sector in the Philippines which was proposed during the 2001 Bangkok conference of senior officials of ASEAN member countries.
  • Conference paper

    Singapore: Status of implementation of the resolution and plan of action on aquaculture. 

    TY Wee - In BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.), Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020, 2011 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Singapore is a small island state and its development of commercial aquaculture started only in the early 1970s. The foodfish aquaculture industry currently produces about 4% of the estimated 100,000 mt of fish consumed annually. The main bulk of foodfish production comes from marine coastal farms and some from land-based foodfish farms.

    The Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority of Singapore (AVA) is the national authority for aquaculture development for Singapore and manages aquaculture farms through the issuance of farm licenses. For marine foodfish farms, the farm licensee has to abide by good farm management guidelines to maintain the farm in good condition and ensure that the farm does not engage in activities that would pollute the farm waters. For land-based farms, there are also guidelines that address infrastructure layout, farming system and water treatment facilities. The latter requires that sedimentation ponds, reservoir ponds/tanks, supply and drainage systems, trade effluent treatment and sampling plant are included in the farm set-up.

    Aquaculture, as with all other food production practices, is facing challenges for sustainable development. An example of Singapore s contribution to sustainable aquaculture is through the development of technology for consistent and economical mass production of fish seeds under controlled conditions. This approach will alleviate the pressure on nature to provide the seeds for farming and would make available large numbers of quality fish for small and large-scale commercial aquaculture. AVA has established the Marine Aquaculture Centre (MAC) at St. John's Island to address the needs of aquaculture development for Singapore through fish reproduction and seed production technology development as well as large- scale fish farming technology development.

    At present, the fish reproduction technology research work involves closing the reproductive cycles of key marine food fish species and also fry production at a commercial scale. Closing the reproductive cycles will eliminate the reliance and alleviate the pressure on wild seed stock. Good quality brooders are selected, maintained and bred to produce quality fry, which would indirectly translate to better growth performances and shorter culture period. This, together with good farm management practices, will optimize the usage offish feeds during the culture cycle.

    AVA is looking into the use of vaccination for fish health management purpose, to reduce the reliance on prophylactic drugs in the future. Antibiotics or chemicals if not administered properly for treatment may have negative consequences. One of them is the presence of drug residues in aquatic products which has food safety and health concerns. Other issues include adverse effects on the environment such as build-up resistance of pathogens.

    In the past, the focus of attention in aquaculture management had been on increasing yield by culture practices, with a view to short-term economic viability. With the current rate of depleting marine resources, there is an urgent need to develop aquaculture in a sustainable way. Current efforts and future developments such as implementation of surveillance programmes, personnel training, fish nutrition and feeding, fish health, the establishment of good aquaculture practices, monitoring of the fish farming environment seawater re-use and information sharing will facilitate working towards the development of sustainable aquaculture in Singapore.
  • Conference paper

    Healthy and wholesome aquaculture. 

    CR Lavilla-Pitogo, MR Catacutan & EC Amar - In BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.), Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020, 2011 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    The concept of healthy and wholesome aquaculture as a holistic approach to sustainable food-fish production has gained more relevance since it was discussed in a similar SEAFDEC forum almost a decade ago. Similar concepts to optimize yield from various production systems with least impact on the environment include Best Management and Good Aquaculture Practices. The three prioritized areas of disease control, food safety and environmental integrity that were identified during the first Fish for the People Conference in 2001 guided the research and development strategies for the past decade. The dynamic nature of aquaculture, however, also paved the way for major species introductions that changed the regional production scenario altogether.

    An important component of effective disease prevention and control is the development of diagnostic techniques. In response to recommendations made in 200I during the first Fish for the People Conference, diagnostic procedures have been harmonized, classified according to levels of complexity, and a few have been translated into techniques for pond-side application. Disease surveillance and reporting have been enhanced in most countries and the awareness about transboundary diseases has been heightened. The region, however, still has a lot to learn about bringing in new and exotic species and their accompanying threat of disease introduction. The past decade has seen the replacement of Penaeus monodon by P. vannamei as the major shrimp species in culture that has resulted in the introduction of major viral diseases like infectious myonecrosis virus (lMNV) and taura syndrome virus (TSV). The first outbreak of koi herpes virus (KHV) occurred in Indonesia in 2002 and Japan in 2003, and the disease continues to affect the koi and common carp industry in some countries in Asia (Lavilla-Pitogo & Nagasawa 2004). Various parasites have become major threats to sustainable marine fish production. Thus, controlling the spread of important pathogens through the introduction of exotic fish species, or the transfer of infected fish to another facility or to wild habitat remains a major problem.

    The development of specific-pathogen-free stocks and the corresponding implementation of biosecurity measures are the most significant advancements to control viral diseases each a prerequisite of the other to guarantee successful production. The vastness of land-based aquaculture systems, however, makes the cost of implementing biosecurity prohibitive, thus, there remains the need for additional health implements to boost fish health like vaccines, immunostimulants, probiotics, chemotherapeutics and disinfectants. Although major research efforts have been devoted to develop such products, satisfactory field test results are wanting for most of them. The issue on unwanted residues in marketable fish products and the fate of antimicrobials and chemicals in the environment are the major deterrents for their widespread application in aquaculture. Furthermore, the lack of fish health professionals that are qualified to prescribe drugs and chemotherapeutants in aquaculture is an issue that needs urgent action in the region.

    The clamor for aquaculture to reduce its dependence on fish meal as the source of protein in artificial feeds has led to numerous studies about fishmeal substitutes. The search for suitable alternative fish feed ingredients may now require a combination of biochemical engineering and manufacturing to enhance the nutritional composition of non-traditional protein sources. Fishmeal substitutes and other feed ingredients that will not compromise fish health and drastically alter carcass composition needs to be developed. Since proper feed management is a key component for farm profitability and sustainability as well as in the reduction of environmental pollution, extension and technology transfer should continue so that various stakeholders will be informed of their responsibility. Efforts to improve fish feed development should continue keeping in mind that feed is a key determinant of fish health.

    For aquaculture to meet the target production to supply the protein requirements of a burgeoning global population, production systems should further emphasize the key components of keeping diseases under control, producing fish that pass food safety standards, and maintaining the integrity of the culture system and its environment. In various countries, supportive efforts are in the form of certification, accreditation and compliance of aquaculture facilities with standards. However, aquaculture, being a relatively new sector in the food production industry, needs to harmonize its efforts with other common resource users.
  • Conference paper

    Effects of CO2-induced ocean environmental changes on marine life: implications for aquaculture. 

    A Ishimatsu & H Kurihara - In BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.), Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020, 2011 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    The world's oceans are becoming warmer and acidic. The atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration has increased from 280 ppm at pre-industrial revolution to above 380 ppm today. The 4th IPCC report predicts that it will range from 540 to nearly 1,000 ppm by the end of the century. The increased CO2 not only warms surface seawater, but also acidifies it (usually termed as ocean acidification) by diffusing across the ocean surface and forming carbonic acid. Our knowledge is still scarce as to how these ocean environmental changes will affect marine life. The early studies on the impact of ocean acidification focused on corals aiming to clarify effects of high-CO2 seawater on their calcification processes. However, more recent studies have revealed that in fact ocean acidification, either alone or coupled with warming, could have detrimental impacts on a variety of biological processes in different taxa. We have shown that early development of marine bivalves (oysters and mussels) could be severely disrupted under elevated CO2 conditions (ca. 2,000 ppm). When a marine shrimp was exposed to seawater equilibrated with air containing 1,000 ppm CO2 for 30 weeks, survival was only 55% as compared with 90% in the control. Gonad maturation of a sea urchin was delayed by one month under the same CO2 conditions at ambient temperature, but when accompanied with increased temperature of 2 degree C above ambient, gonad maturation was not only delayed but also significantly suppressed; the number of eggs in the ovary was reduced to only 20% of the control. It has been shown that tropical animals already live near their thermal tolerant maxima, and therefore even small increases of environmental temperature could reduce their environmental fitness. These recent findings bear significant implication in aquaculture and fisheries production, in particular, in tropical countries. This paper will summarize recent data on these topics and discuss possible adaptation measures.
  • Conference paper

    SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department: score card for 2002-2009. 

    JD Toledo & MT Castaños - In BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.), Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020, 2011 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    From 2002 to 2009, the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center / Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC/AQD) focused most of its research and development efforts on six thematic areas (e.g., seed supply, fish nutrition & feed development, fish health, biotechnology, environment friendly fish farming, and rural aquaculture). As a result, hatchery and grow-out technologies were developed or refined (documented in over 200 science papers and in 49 field manuals) for dissemination in Southeast Asia through training of over 2,000 government extensionists / private entrepreneurs and through other extension services. With technology availability as main criterion, AQD rated itself scores of 3-4 out of 5 in terms of accomplishments in the six thematic areas.
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    Vietnam: status of implementation of the resolution and plan of action on aquaculture. 

    LT Luu - In BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.), Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020, 2011 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Aquaculture in Vietnam achieved significant increase in production from 425,000 mt in 1998 to 2,465,600 mt in 2008 and this has contributed to addressing the country s food security agenda. This achievement has indicated success of a number of factors including implementation of appropriate policies, technological improvements in aquaculture, efficiency of extension work, and capacity of market expansion. Improvement of seed production and supply through strengthening the infrastructure of hatchery system throughout the country and diversification of culture species have contributed to achieving the goal of aquaculture development programs for the period 1999-2010. The challenge on the use of fish meal is being addressed by using the omnivorous fish species such as the carps, tilapias, pangasius and mollusks for large-volume production. Environment-friendly technologies are developed and applied in aquaculture practices. Good aquaculture practices and Best management practices have encouraged the different stakeholders (seed producers, growers, feed suppliers) to apply these practices in their business. Aquaculture is seen as an important sector for rural development because this contributes significantly to income and employment for rural population, on one hand, and better use of land (where agriculture operation is not economically feasible) and water resources, on the other hand. Nevertheless, aquaculture in Vietnam is still faced with a number of issues which need to be addressed and these are as follows: (a) capacity to guide sustainable aquaculture; (b) appropriate policies to fit into new development trends; (c) quality of economically important species; and (d) traceability, certification and linkage to market chain of small scale producers. Some important points of aquaculture development plan in Vietnam during the period 2011-2020 are also introduced in this paper.
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    Malaysia: status of implementation of the resolution and plan of action on aquaculture. 

    IA Hassan, K Subramaniam & M Hashim - In BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.), Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020, 2011 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
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    Lao PDR: developments in aquaculture after the 2001 ASEAN-SEAFDEC fisheries millennium conference. 

    K Roger - In BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.), Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020, 2011 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department