Singapore: Status of implementation of the resolution and plan of action on aquaculture.
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Singapore is a small island state and its development of commercial aquaculture started only in the early 1970s. The foodfish aquaculture industry currently produces about 4% of the estimated 100,000 mt of fish consumed annually. The main bulk of foodfish production comes from marine coastal farms and some from land-based foodfish farms. The Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority of Singapore (AVA) is the national authority for aquaculture development for Singapore and manages aquaculture farms through the issuance of farm licenses. For marine foodfish farms, the farm licensee has to abide by good farm management guidelines to maintain the farm in good condition and ensure that the farm does not engage in activities that would pollute the farm waters. For land-based farms, there are also guidelines that address infrastructure layout, farming system and water treatment facilities. The latter requires that sedimentation ponds, reservoir ponds/tanks, supply and drainage systems, trade effluent treatment and sampling plant are included in the farm set-up. Aquaculture, as with all other food production practices, is facing challenges for sustainable development. An example of Singapore s contribution to sustainable aquaculture is through the development of technology for consistent and economical mass production of fish seeds under controlled conditions. This approach will alleviate the pressure on nature to provide the seeds for farming and would make available large numbers of quality fish for small and large-scale commercial aquaculture. AVA has established the Marine Aquaculture Centre (MAC) at St. John's Island to address the needs of aquaculture development for Singapore through fish reproduction and seed production technology development as well as large- scale fish farming technology development. At present, the fish reproduction technology research work involves closing the reproductive cycles of key marine food fish species and also fry production at a commercial scale. Closing the reproductive cycles will eliminate the reliance and alleviate the pressure on wild seed stock. Good quality brooders are selected, maintained and bred to produce quality fry, which would indirectly translate to better growth performances and shorter culture period. This, together with good farm management practices, will optimize the usage offish feeds during the culture cycle. AVA is looking into the use of vaccination for fish health management purpose, to reduce the reliance on prophylactic drugs in the future. Antibiotics or chemicals if not administered properly for treatment may have negative consequences. One of them is the presence of drug residues in aquatic products which has food safety and health concerns. Other issues include adverse effects on the environment such as build-up resistance of pathogens. In the past, the focus of attention in aquaculture management had been on increasing yield by culture practices, with a view to short-term economic viability. With the current rate of depleting marine resources, there is an urgent need to develop aquaculture in a sustainable way. Current efforts and future developments such as implementation of surveillance programmes, personnel training, fish nutrition and feeding, fish health, the establishment of good aquaculture practices, monitoring of the fish farming environment seawater re-use and information sharing will facilitate working towards the development of sustainable aquaculture in Singapore.
Wee, T. Y. (2011). Singapore: Status of implementation of the resolution and plan of action on aquaculture. In B. O. Acosta, R. M. Coloso, E. G. T. de Jesus-Ayson, & J. D. Toledo (Eds.), Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020 (pp. 113-114). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/1829
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Conference paperPC Liong, HB Hanafi, ZO Merican & G Nagaraj - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterMalaysia is a fish-consuming country with fish representing 60% of a total animal protein intake. At an annual per capita consumption of 32 kg some 560 000 mt of fish is required for the projected of 17.5 million people in year 2000. Coastal marine capture fisheries, the mainstay of Malaysia's fishsupply, has not shown any increase in landings over the last few years. In fact in 1985 there was a decline of 3.7% compared to 1984 fish landings. This declining contribution of marine fisheries is compensated by an increase in aquaculture production. In 1985, aquaculture contributed 51 709 mt to the total fish supply. This represents 10% of the total fish landings of 514 570 mt or 13% of total table (edible) fish landings. Malaysia does not have a long standing aquaculture tradition unlike its neighbours in the Indo-Pacific. Even then, the industry has seen rapid growth in the last few years. Today there are 19 species of finfishes, crustaceans and shellfish cultured in the country. The main freshwater fish species bred and cultured are bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Indonesian carp (Punctius gonionotus), catfish (Clarias macrocephalus and Pangasius spp), snakefish gourami (Trichogaster pectoralis) and tilapia (mainly Oreochromis niloticus). Marine finfishes bred and cultured are sea bass (Lates calcarifer), grouper (Epinephelus sp.) and snapper (Lutjanus johni). Penaeus monodon is the dominant marine prawn species bred and cultured but culture of P. merguiensis is receiving considerable interest. Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the only freshwater prawn cultured commercially. Molluscs cultured are the blood clam (Anadara granosa) and the green mussel (Perna viridis). In 1985, blood clam and mussel culture accounted for 87% of all aquaculture production of Malaysia, freshwater fish 12%, floating cage culture of marine fish 0.7% and brackishwater pond culture 0.3%. In terms of value blood clam and mussels represented 30% (M$15M) of total value (M$49.5M), freshwater fish 57% (M$28M),cage culture of marine fin fishes 7% (M$3.4M),and brackishwater pond production 6% (M$2.1M). Aquaculture in Malaysia has considerable growth potential. It is projected that 22 000 ha of mangrove will be opened by the year 2000 for shrimp culture. Some 330 000 m2 of protected coastal waters have been identified for cage culture. Some 6500 rafts can considerably expand the present capacity. In freshwater culture about 8000 ha of land and 17 500 ha of mining pools can be developed while 200 000 ha of artificial lakes and impoundments for freshwater fish cage culture are available. Yet such development is not without constraints. Freshwater finfish culture is hampered by lack of good quality broodstock. There is also a limited market for freshwater finfishes. Marine finfish culture is limited by lack of fingerlings and good quality compounded diet to replace trash fish which is deteriorating in quality and quantity. Marine prawn culture is heavily dependent on wild spawners, the supply unpredictable and inadequate. Acid sulfate soil continues to cause the deterioration of brackishwater ponds. Cockles and mussels can be sold to export markets only if they meet specific quality standards.
Conference paperK Fukusho - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture production in Japan in 1993 was 1,351,000 tons, 15.6% of the total fisheries production. About 93.6% came from mariculture and 6.4% from freshwater aquaculture. The per cent contribution of aquaculture to total production has increased in recent years but partly because marine fisheries,especially of sardine and pollack, have decreased. Aquaculture has reached a plateau, and decreased slightly between 1992 and 1993. Diverse marine and freshwater species are cultured in Japan — various fishes, crustaceans, mollusks, seaweeds, sea squirt, sea urchin, and others. Research and development in mariculture focus on finding substitutes for animal protein in feeds, improvement of fish quality, protection of the culture environment, use of offshore floating culture systems, and protection from diseases. Research in freshwater aquaculture has expanded to include recreational fishing, the propagation and preservation of endangered species, and the construction of fish ladders for salmonids and other migratory species.
Conference paperB Sirikul, S Luanprida, K Chaiyakam & R Sriprasert - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture practised in Thailand is in the form of pond culture and cage culture in freshwater, brackishwater and coastal areas. The main species cultured include freshwater prawns, brackishwater shrimp, cockles, mussels, and various freshwater and marine finfishes. There is good potential for increased production from freshwater, brackishwater and marine aquaculture. However, the 1983 production of 145 000 mt represents only about 6% of Thailand's total fish production and production in this subsector has fluctuated widely. It will be several years before aquaculture production will contribute substantially to total production. Nonetheless, the culture of high value species of shrimp and fish could contribute significantly to export earnings during the next 5 to 10 years. Conducted primarily by government agencies, research and development are along the lines of increasing seed supply, establishing new culture techniques or improving older ones. The Department of Fisheries (DOF) together with some private companies have ventured into the development and testing of artificial diets for the various cultured species using a variety of indigenous feed stuffs. It is estimated that with adequate investments and appropriate support, aquaculture production will increase from 145 000 mt in 1983 to 378 000 mt in 1991, showing an annual increase of about 13% over this period. Major increases would come from bivalve mariculture (131 000 mt), brackishwater ponds (36 000 mt) freshwater ponds (46 000 mt) and brackishwater cage culture (20 000 mt).