Effect of prepared diet and vitamins A, E and C supplementation on the reproductive performance of cage-reared bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson)
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Twenty-month-old bighead carp, Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson), were fed prepared dry diets for 20 months in cages in Laguna de Bay, Philippines, to determine the effect on reproductive performance. The experimental diets were similar in composition except for the combinations of vitamins being tested. Diet 1 was supplemented with vitamins A, E and C; diets 2, 3 and 4 each lacked one of the supplementary vitamins; and diet 5 did not include any vitamin supplementation. Bighead carp that relied solely on natural food without a prepared diet served as a control. The total of six treatments each had two replicates. Results showed that the onset of gonad maturation was 2–3 months earlier in the fish that were fed the prepared diets regardless of vitamin supplementation, when compared with the fish that were fed natural food (control). Moreover, the prepared diets enhanced egg hatchability which was significantly higher in fish that were fed diet 1 (+ vitamins A, E and C, 80.5 ± 18.1%) and diet 3 (– vitamin E, 78.5 ± 1.1%) than in those fish that were fed natural food (control) (36.5 ± 31.3%). Mean number of 3-day-old larvae was highest in fish fed on diet 1 (34 525 ± 1732), followed closely by fish that were fed diet 3 (32 420 ± 3909). A low number of 3-day-old larvae was obtained from fish fed the natural diet (14 490 ± 4331) as well as in fish that were fed diet 2 (– vitamin A, 14 347 ± 4863), diet 4 (– vitamin C, 21 407 ± 5840) and diet 5 (– vitamin A, E and C, 12 191 ± 1439). Other criteria for reproduction such as relative fecundity, fertilization rate, and hatching rate did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) among treatments. The addition of vitamins also had no significant effects on weight gain of adult fish.
CitationSantiago, C. B., & Gonzal, A. C. (2000). Effect of prepared diet and vitamins A, E and C supplementation on the reproductive performance of cage-reared bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson).
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Influence of various dietary synthetic carotenoids on bio-defence mechanisms in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) This study examined the influence of different carotenoids on growth and some immune indices in rainbow trout. Six semipurified casein-based diets were formulated to contain one of three different carotenoids: astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and β-carotene, at 100 mg kg−1, each of them with vitamins A, C and E either added or omitted. The two control diets contained no carotenoids and were either with or without the vitamins. Rainbow trout weighing about 140 g were fed the diets for 9 weeks. Specific growth rate, feed:gain ratio and nonspecific immune parameters were determined. Growth and feed conversion were similar among the groups. Immune parameters like production of reactive oxygen species by head kidney leukocytes and plasma total immunoglobulin levels did not vary with the treatment. Serum complement activity in both β-carotene groups and the vitamin-containing astaxanthin group were significantly higher than both the control fish. Serum lysozyme activity in the vitamin-containing β-carotene and astaxanthin groups were significantly different from both control groups. Phagocytic activity was also high in the vitamin-containing β-carotene and astaxanthin groups compared with the controls. For phagocytic index, in addition to the foregoing groups, the vitamin-containing canthaxanthin group gave better results compared with the controls. The vitamin-containing astaxanthin and β-carotene groups also exhibited better nonspecific cytotoxicity for the peripheral blood lymphocytes at all effector-to-target ratios. Thus, among the carotenoids studied, β-carotene and astaxanthin elevated humoral factors such as serum complement and lysozyme activity, as well as cellular factors such as phagocytosis and nonspecific cytotoxicity. In the presence of the vitamins the carotenoids exerted a greater influence on the bio-defense mechanisms of rainbow trout.
Rapid wound healing in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, fed diets supplemented with ascorbic acid G Erazo-Pagador & MS Din -
The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 2001 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine BiotechnologyWound healing in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, fed diets supplemented with ascorbic acid was studied under laboratory conditions. Fish weighing approximately 80-110 g were stocked in 500 l aquaria in a static water system and fed one of five test diets containing different levels of microencapsulated ascorbic acid (0, 0.06, 0.10, 0.30 and 0.70 g AsA/100 g feed). After two weeks, all experimental fish were wounded by making a 1 x 1 cm dorso-lateral incision above the lateral line of the fish. Wounded tissues were sampled for histopathological analysis 4, 8, 24, 48 and 96 hours, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 days after making the incision. There were significant differences in weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio among the dietary treatments. Weight gain and SGR of fish fed the ascorbic acid free diet were lower than those of fish fed diets supplemented with ascorbic acid. The wound healing response showed a direct correlation to ascorbate level in the diet. Fibroblasts were present at 96 h irrespective of the ascorbic acid level. As 14 days, fish fed no ascorbic acid had some regeneration of muscle tissues, whereas fish fed diets containing supplemental ascorbic acid had a normal epidermis, dermis and muscle structure. There was no mortality during the experimental period, and fish fed ascorbic acid free diets did not exhibit any deficiency signs. Results of this study indicate that about 0.10-0.70 g AsA/100 g feed is needed for wound repair in African catfish.
ArticleMilkfish Chanos chanos Forsskal broodstock (11 years old, average body weight 5.23–5.73 kg) reared in 10-m-diameter by 3-m-deep floating net cages (31–36 fish per cage) at SEAFDEC AQD's Igang Marine Substation in Guimaras Island, central Philippines, were fed daily at 3% of total body weight formulated diets (36% protein, 7–8% lipid) supplemented with 0.1% vitamin C, 0.05% vitamin E, both vitamin C and E or no vitamin supplementation (control) for 3 years. Reproductive performance was assessed in an attempt to determine the optimum nutrition for successful spawning of milkfish. The total egg production, mean number of eggs per spawning, number of spawns and mean egg diameter were not affected by dietary vitamin C and E supplementation. However, broodstock given dietary supplementation of vitamin C alone or in combination with vitamin E had a higher percentage of spawns with higher (> 90%) percentage egg viability, hatching and cumulative survival rate than those of the control. Broodstock given dietary vitamin E supplementation alone had few spawns, which made the results difficult to analyse. The results confirm the essentiality of vitamin C supplementation in producing more spawns with good egg and larval quality. The production of an adequate volume of good quality eggs and larvae to support hatchery operation is necessary to offset the huge investment in broodstock development, as it takes at least 5 years for milkfish to attain sexual maturation and spawning.