The essential nutrients: Vitamins
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This section describes the various lipid-soluble and water-soluble vitamins, their differences, physiological functions, and the symptoms of vitamin deficiencies in fish. It also shows a summary of nutritional deficiency signs and the requirements of various fish species for vitamins.
Millamena, O. M. (2002). The essential nutrients: Vitamins. In O. M. Millamena, R. M. Coloso, & F. P. Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species (pp. 45–56). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
- Classification of vitamins
- Water-soluble vitamins
- Lipid-soluble vitamins
- Vitamin requirements of fish
- Guide questions
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Interactive effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on growth performance, fatty acid composition and reduction of oxidative stress in juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus fed dietary oxidized fish oil A study was conducted to determine the interactive effects of vitamin C (VC) and E (VE) supplementation on growth, fatty acid composition and oxidative status of Japanese flounder juveniles. Fish (initial average body weight of 1.1 ± 0.1 g) in triplicate were fed five test diets for 60 days. Control diet contained fresh fish oil (FFO, 8.9 meq/kg) with 100 mg α-tocopherol (α-Toc) equivalents/kg of VE and 500 mg ascorbic acid (AsA) equivalents/kg of VC (FFO100E/500C). The other four diets contained oxidized fish oil (OFO, 167.8 meq/kg) with varying levels of VE (mg/kg) and VC (mg/kg) (OFO100E/500C, OFO200E/500C, OFO100E/1000C and OFO200E/1000C). Fish fed FFO100E/500C and OFO100E/500C had no differences in body weight gain (BWG). However, fish fed OFO200E/1000C diet had a significantly lower BWG than FFO100E/500C. Fish fed OFO200E/500C and OFO100E/1000C showed no differences in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values compared with FFO100E/500C. Increasing the levels of VC and VE supplementation increased liver AsA and α-Toc contents, respectively. Liver α-Toc content was significantly increased with incremental dietary VC levels, indicating a sparing effect of VC on liver α-Toc content of fish. Increasing the levels of dietary VC and VE supplementations decreased concentrations of 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in fish liver. Fish fed OFO100E/500C and OFO200E/1000C diets showed higher oxidative stress condition than those fed FFO100E/500C. In conclusion, dietary VC and VE supplementation could maintain normal growth and health condition of juvenile Japanese flounder fed OFO. However, high doses of both vitamin supplements induced fish lipid peroxidation under oxidative stress condition.
Influence of various dietary synthetic carotenoids on bio-defence mechanisms in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) This study examined the influence of different carotenoids on growth and some immune indices in rainbow trout. Six semipurified casein-based diets were formulated to contain one of three different carotenoids: astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and β-carotene, at 100 mg kg−1, each of them with vitamins A, C and E either added or omitted. The two control diets contained no carotenoids and were either with or without the vitamins. Rainbow trout weighing about 140 g were fed the diets for 9 weeks. Specific growth rate, feed:gain ratio and nonspecific immune parameters were determined. Growth and feed conversion were similar among the groups. Immune parameters like production of reactive oxygen species by head kidney leukocytes and plasma total immunoglobulin levels did not vary with the treatment. Serum complement activity in both β-carotene groups and the vitamin-containing astaxanthin group were significantly higher than both the control fish. Serum lysozyme activity in the vitamin-containing β-carotene and astaxanthin groups were significantly different from both control groups. Phagocytic activity was also high in the vitamin-containing β-carotene and astaxanthin groups compared with the controls. For phagocytic index, in addition to the foregoing groups, the vitamin-containing canthaxanthin group gave better results compared with the controls. The vitamin-containing astaxanthin and β-carotene groups also exhibited better nonspecific cytotoxicity for the peripheral blood lymphocytes at all effector-to-target ratios. Thus, among the carotenoids studied, β-carotene and astaxanthin elevated humoral factors such as serum complement and lysozyme activity, as well as cellular factors such as phagocytosis and nonspecific cytotoxicity. In the presence of the vitamins the carotenoids exerted a greater influence on the bio-defense mechanisms of rainbow trout.
Effect of prepared diet and vitamins A, E and C supplementation on the reproductive performance of cage-reared bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson) Twenty-month-old bighead carp, Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson), were fed prepared dry diets for 20 months in cages in Laguna de Bay, Philippines, to determine the effect on reproductive performance. The experimental diets were similar in composition except for the combinations of vitamins being tested. Diet 1 was supplemented with vitamins A, E and C; diets 2, 3 and 4 each lacked one of the supplementary vitamins; and diet 5 did not include any vitamin supplementation. Bighead carp that relied solely on natural food without a prepared diet served as a control. The total of six treatments each had two replicates. Results showed that the onset of gonad maturation was 2–3 months earlier in the fish that were fed the prepared diets regardless of vitamin supplementation, when compared with the fish that were fed natural food (control). Moreover, the prepared diets enhanced egg hatchability which was significantly higher in fish that were fed diet 1 (+ vitamins A, E and C, 80.5 ± 18.1%) and diet 3 (– vitamin E, 78.5 ± 1.1%) than in those fish that were fed natural food (control) (36.5 ± 31.3%). Mean number of 3-day-old larvae was highest in fish fed on diet 1 (34 525 ± 1732), followed closely by fish that were fed diet 3 (32 420 ± 3909). A low number of 3-day-old larvae was obtained from fish fed the natural diet (14 490 ± 4331) as well as in fish that were fed diet 2 (– vitamin A, 14 347 ± 4863), diet 4 (– vitamin C, 21 407 ± 5840) and diet 5 (– vitamin A, E and C, 12 191 ± 1439). Other criteria for reproduction such as relative fecundity, fertilization rate, and hatching rate did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) among treatments. The addition of vitamins also had no significant effects on weight gain of adult fish.