The essential nutrients: Vitamins
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This section describes the various lipid-soluble and water-soluble vitamins, their differences, physiological functions, and the symptoms of vitamin deficiencies in fish. It also shows a summary of nutritional deficiency signs and the requirements of various fish species for vitamins.
Millamena, O. M. (2002). The essential nutrients: Vitamins. In O. M. Millamena, R. M. Coloso, & F. P. Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species (pp. 45–56). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/3314
- Classification of vitamins
- Water-soluble vitamins
- Lipid-soluble vitamins
- Vitamin requirements of fish
- Guide questions
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Interactive effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on growth performance, fatty acid composition and reduction of oxidative stress in juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus fed dietary oxidized fish oil A study was conducted to determine the interactive effects of vitamin C (VC) and E (VE) supplementation on growth, fatty acid composition and oxidative status of Japanese flounder juveniles. Fish (initial average body weight of 1.1 ± 0.1 g) in triplicate were fed five test diets for 60 days. Control diet contained fresh fish oil (FFO, 8.9 meq/kg) with 100 mg α-tocopherol (α-Toc) equivalents/kg of VE and 500 mg ascorbic acid (AsA) equivalents/kg of VC (FFO100E/500C). The other four diets contained oxidized fish oil (OFO, 167.8 meq/kg) with varying levels of VE (mg/kg) and VC (mg/kg) (OFO100E/500C, OFO200E/500C, OFO100E/1000C and OFO200E/1000C). Fish fed FFO100E/500C and OFO100E/500C had no differences in body weight gain (BWG). However, fish fed OFO200E/1000C diet had a significantly lower BWG than FFO100E/500C. Fish fed OFO200E/500C and OFO100E/1000C showed no differences in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values compared with FFO100E/500C. Increasing the levels of VC and VE supplementation increased liver AsA and α-Toc contents, respectively. Liver α-Toc content was significantly increased with incremental dietary VC levels, indicating a sparing effect of VC on liver α-Toc content of fish. Increasing the levels of dietary VC and VE supplementations decreased concentrations of 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in fish liver. Fish fed OFO100E/500C and OFO200E/1000C diets showed higher oxidative stress condition than those fed FFO100E/500C. In conclusion, dietary VC and VE supplementation could maintain normal growth and health condition of juvenile Japanese flounder fed OFO. However, high doses of both vitamin supplements induced fish lipid peroxidation under oxidative stress condition.
Conference paperOM Millamena - In CT Villegas, MT Castaños & RB Lacierda (Eds.), Proceedings of the Aquaculture Workshop for SEAFDEC/AQD Training Alumni, 8-11 September 1992, Iloilo, Philippines, 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe Feed Development Section at SEAFDEC/AQD conducts research on the nutritional requirements and the development of costeffective practical diets for regionally important fishes (milkfish, tilapia, carp, and sea bass) and shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Macronutrient requirements for protein, lipid, carbohydrate, energy, and optimum dietary protein to energy ratio have been defined. Essential fatty acids required by each species have been identified. Requirement levels for the ten essential amino acids in milkfish and tilapia have been established. In shrimp, requirements for other essential nutrients like phospholipid and cholesterol are known. Dietary calcium and phosphorous requirements of shrimp have been determined. Requirement for water-soluble vitamins and bioavailability of stable forms of vitamin C are being evaluated. However, much work remains to be done on the vitamin and mineral requirements of cultured species. The major digestive enzymes, proteases, carbohydrases, and lipases in milkfish have been studied. Further, the apparent digestibility of commonly used feedstuffs were determined in-vivo and in-vitro for milkfish, and presently, for shrimp and sea bass. In diet development, the formulation of supplemental grow-out feeds from inexpensive indigenous materials has been emphasized. Likewise, artificial diets for larvae and broodstock are being developed. Effects of feed additives like chemo-attractants and antioxidants were studied. In addition, studies on feed and feedstuff quality control and application of proper processing techniques are being pursued. At present, there are supplemental grow-out diets for the fishes that are commercially viable. Diets for all life stages (grow-out, larval, and broodstock) of shrimp are available. Improvement of these diets will continue as more information on the nutrient requirements are known.
Influence of various dietary synthetic carotenoids on bio-defence mechanisms in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) This study examined the influence of different carotenoids on growth and some immune indices in rainbow trout. Six semipurified casein-based diets were formulated to contain one of three different carotenoids: astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and β-carotene, at 100 mg kg−1, each of them with vitamins A, C and E either added or omitted. The two control diets contained no carotenoids and were either with or without the vitamins. Rainbow trout weighing about 140 g were fed the diets for 9 weeks. Specific growth rate, feed:gain ratio and nonspecific immune parameters were determined. Growth and feed conversion were similar among the groups. Immune parameters like production of reactive oxygen species by head kidney leukocytes and plasma total immunoglobulin levels did not vary with the treatment. Serum complement activity in both β-carotene groups and the vitamin-containing astaxanthin group were significantly higher than both the control fish. Serum lysozyme activity in the vitamin-containing β-carotene and astaxanthin groups were significantly different from both control groups. Phagocytic activity was also high in the vitamin-containing β-carotene and astaxanthin groups compared with the controls. For phagocytic index, in addition to the foregoing groups, the vitamin-containing canthaxanthin group gave better results compared with the controls. The vitamin-containing astaxanthin and β-carotene groups also exhibited better nonspecific cytotoxicity for the peripheral blood lymphocytes at all effector-to-target ratios. Thus, among the carotenoids studied, β-carotene and astaxanthin elevated humoral factors such as serum complement and lysozyme activity, as well as cellular factors such as phagocytosis and nonspecific cytotoxicity. In the presence of the vitamins the carotenoids exerted a greater influence on the bio-defense mechanisms of rainbow trout.