Genetic diversity of wild and cultured Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in the Philippines using microsatellites
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Six microsatellites were used to study (1) the genetic diversity of wild Penaeus monodon shrimp from four geographic regions (Palawan, Quezon, Capiz and Negros Occidental-W) in the Philippines, and (2) its association with the status of mangroves and intensity of shrimp culture systems in these regions. Two cultured populations (Negros Occidental-C and Antique) were used for comparison. All six microsatellite loci were polymorphic. A total of 184 different alleles were found over all loci. The total number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 54, with allele size ranging from 159 base pairs (bp) to 400 bp. The observed heterozygosity of the six loci ranged from 0.47 to 1.00. The number of genotypes per locus ranged from 5 to 70. Fst values showed significant genetic differentiation among the four wild populations. Genetic differences between wild populations were also detected by pairwise comparison based on genotypic and allelic frequencies. Genetic differentiation among wild populations exhibited a positive correlation with mangrove status and intensity of culture systems at P=0.083. The Negros Occidental-W population, which originated from an area with the most severe mangrove loss and the most intensive culture systems, was the most significantly differentiated population. It also showed less genotypes per locus than the other three wild populations, suggesting a decrease in genetic diversity in this population. The population from Capiz, a province with a wide area of extensive culture ponds and few remaining secondary mangroves was the second most differentiated population. The Quezon population, which originated from an area with a few extensive culture ponds and less mangrove destruction, was not genetically different from the Palawan population, which was from a pristine site with mostly primary mangroves and no major aquaculture industry. The cultured populations showed less genetic diversity and were significantly different from the four wild populations based on pairwise Fst values and pairwise comparisons of allelic and genotypic frequencies. The results suggest that (a) there was a significant genetic differentiation among the wild P. monodon populations in the Philippines, and (b) the cultured populations were significantly differentiated from the natural populations. More replicate samples from each of the geographic regions are needed to conclusively determine the possibility of an association between genetic differentiation and the status of mangroves and/or intensity of shrimp culture systems.
CitationXu, Z., Primavera, J. H., de la Peña, L. D., Pettit, P., Belak, J., & Alcivar-Warren, A. (2001). Genetic diversity of wild and cultured Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in the Philippines using microsatellites.
This research was funded by a grant from the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, Inc., New York, NY (to A.A-W). Partial funds were also obtained from the Curriculum Program and the Department of Environmental and Population Health at Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine (TUSVM) (to A.A-W) and the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Philippines (SEAFDEC AQD) (to J.H.P. and L.P.).
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Book | Conference publication
Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan : proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July 1994 TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.) - 1995 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture DepartmentDocuments the presentations at ADSEA '94, the 3rd Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. ADSEA '94 includes reviews of the status of aquaculture development in Southeast Asia and Japan and of the researches conducted by Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC/AQD) to contribute to this development. Topics on responsible aquaculture, mollusc and seaweed culture, integrated farming, shrimp culture, diseases, and health management, and transgenic fish were also discussed. It also lists the research areas of 20 or so commodities prioritized for research at AQD for 1995-1997.
Conference paperRW Doyle - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTropical shrimp aquaculture is in a disease-induced crisis of lost production. The response to this crisis currently focuses on microbiology and pathology, quarantine, and transboundary transfer of shrimp. The crisis also involves an interaction between shrimp genetics and various human interests including protection of intellectual property. Breeders of high-quality strains generally employ (and are encouraged to employ) some form of breeder lock that generates inbreeding when broodstocks are copied . Smaller hatcheries sell these copied, inbred shrimp to farmers, who thereby increase the likelihood of losing their crops to disease. The joint behavior of breeders, hatcheries and farmers causes inbreeding to accumulate in tropical regions. The depressive effect of inbreeding on disease resistance is exceptionally strong in shrimp, as shown in a re-analysis of published field and experimental data. Inbreeding increases the severity and frequency of disease through a variety of mechanisms. We have relatively few, marker-based estimates of accumulated inbreeding in any non-pedigreed shrimp aquaculture system. Simulation shows, however, that locked post larvae (PLs) can be distinguished from copies in broodstocks and farm ponds, given appropriate analysis of genetic markers. Culture of stocks certified to be free of specified pathogens (specific pathogen free or SPF stocks) is strongly recommended and only SPF stocks can now be legally imported into most jurisdictions. These recommendations are appropriate, beneficial and necessary. But insofar as they increase the commercial value of proprietary genetic strains, such regulations may also increase the likelihood of copying, and thus inbreeding at farm level and ever-increasing susceptibility to disease and climate stress (Doyle, 2014a). The intellectual property value of disease-resistant strains will be extremely high and intellectual property rights are fundamental to science-based economic innovation. Breeders will, and must, continue to protect their genetic improvement programs with genetic locks, especially in regions where judicial sanctions are ineffective. The regulatory objective should be to encourage biosecurity and genetic progress while discouraging copying and consequent inbreeding. The current consensus that inbreeding is unimportant may therefore be out of date. Inbreeding may be amplifying the severity of diseases (including the major current threats: white spot syndrome virus or WSSV, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus or IHHNV and early mortality syndrome or EMS (acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease or AHPND). Continuing to ignore the interaction between inbreeding and disease may become a fatal error for tropical shrimp aquaculture.
Conference paperCR Lavilla-Pitogo, MG Paner & RD Traviña - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Diseases in Asian aquaculture IV: proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture, 22-26 November 1999, Cebu City, Philippines, 2002 - Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries SocietyIn the course of routine microscopic analysis of hatchery-reared Penaeus monodon postlarvae, several batches were found with hindgut abnormalities not previously described in shrimp postlarvae. The abnormality was named swollen hindgut syndrome (SHG) because it affected mainly the hindgut. Postlarvae with SHG showed enlargement and distention of the hindgut folds and its junction with the midgut, although in some cases swelling also occurred in the midgut of the sixth abdominal segment. Over a five-year period, the yearly prevalence of SHG ranged from 6 to 13% of all batches examined. No seasonal pattern was observed as SHG occurred year-round. Despite the numerous samples obtained, SHG has not been associated with specific predisposing factors in the hatchery. The abnormality caused cessation of the rhythmic movements of the hindgut-midgut junction resulting to failure of affected postlarvae to excrete fecal pellets. Swollen hindgut syndrome, although reversible to some extent, caused mortality and significant size variation within batches of postlarvae resulting in their unsuitability for stocking in grow-out farms.