Recent Asian initiatives under the NACA regional programme on aquatic animal health management
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The activities of NACA in support of improving aquatic animal health management within Asia dates back since 1986 when it was first involved in the UNDP/FAO/ODA (and subsequently DFID) sponsored program on Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS). Consequently, in cooperation with relevant governments and institutions, NACA implemented a Regional Research Program on Ulcerative Syndrome in Fish and the Environment, from 1986 to 1989, which produced most of the scientific data on environmental parameters associated with EUS outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region. Between 1989-1990, NACA and ADB implemented the Regional Study and Workshop on Fish Disease and Fish Health Management which revealed a scenario of environment-linked disease problems, product contamination, and environmental impacts on aquaculture, and for the first time losses suffered by Asian aquaculture from fish diseases were quantified. The study provided the first broad guidelines to regional and national strategies for developing capacities in fish health management. In 1991, OIE Tokyo approached NACA to initiate cooperation with respect to aquatic animal disease reporting which eventually led to an Expert Consultation on Aquatic Animal Disease Reporting in 1996. Between 1992 to 1996, NACA was involved in the following regional activities: (a) collaborating with IDRC and UPM in a Tropical Fish Health Management course, that ran for two intakes of students at UPM; (b) participating in the FAO 1994 Expert Consultation on Health Management held at UPM in Malaysia; and (c) the 1996 Consultation on Quarantine and Health Certification of FAO and AAHRI through the ODA-funded SEAADCP project. In l998, a joint publication - 'EUS Technical Handbook' with ACIAR, DFID, NSW Fisheries, AAHRI through SEAADCP and NACA - was completed. The major recommendations of the various regional meetings/consultations became the basis for the development of a strong multi-disciplinary Asia-Pacific regional programme on aquatic animal health management. At the request of Asian governments, NACA and FAO developed a Regional Technical Cooperation Programme on "Assistance for the Responsible Movement of Live Aquatic Animals" (FAO RTCP/RAS 6714 and 9605). The project was implemented from 1998 to 2001 in cooperation with 21 governments/territories in Asia-Pacific region, OIE FDC, OIE Tokyo, AFFA, AusAID/APEC and AAHRI. The programme and its outputs were developed through three years (1998 to 2001) of awareness raising and consensus building through various national and regional level activities (e.g. workshops, training courses, expert consultation, health assessments, etc.). This multidisciplinary Regional Aquatic Animal Health Management Programme has now been adopted by Asian governments (including NACA members and participating governments within ASEAN) as an important element of NACA's Third Five Year Work Programme (2001-2005). The current thrust of the programme is to assist countries in implementing the 'Technical Guidelines', giving special emphasis to the concept of "phased implementation based on national needs", including monitoring and evaluation of its implementation. One of the mechanisms to support Asian governments in the implementation of the 'Technical Guidelines' is through regional cooperation where effective partnership with relevant organizations will be continuously established and strengthened. Designated National Coordinators will continue to be the focal points for its implementation. A Regional Advisory Group on Aquatic Animal Health has been established which will function as an official regional expert group that will ensure the provision of expert advice to Asian governments in the implementation of the 'Technical Guidelines', with NACA providing institutional support and FAO and OIE providing technical guidance. The main elements for regional cooperation include: (a) Promoting effective cooperation through regional resource centers on aquatic animal health; (b) Harmonization of procedures for health certification, quarantine and diagnostics; (c) Support to capacity building; (d) Awareness raising, communication and information exchange on aquatic animal health; (e) Regional disease reporting; (f) Emergency response; and (g) Joint activities for risk reduction in shared watersheds.The paper also briefly include other health related projects jointly being developed and/ or currently carried out by NACA with other organizations (e.g. ACIAR, APEC, ASEAN, CSIRO, DANIDA, IDRC, MPEDA, MRC and SEAFDEC-AQD).
Bondad-Reantaso, M. G. (2002). Recent Asian initiatives under the NACA regional programme on aquatic animal health management. In Y. Inui & E. R. Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Disease Control in Fish and Shrimp Aquaculture in Southeast Asia - Diagnosis and Husbandry Techniques: Proceedings of the SEAFDEC-OIE Seminar-Workshop on Disease Control in Fish and Shrimp Aquaculture in Southeast Asia - Diagnosis and Husbandry Techniques, 4-6 December 2001, Iloilo City, Philippines (pp. 189-205). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department.
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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OIE initiatives on acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) and other aquatic animal diseases in Asia H Kugita - In RV Pakingking Jr., EGT de Jesus-Ayson & BO Acosta (Eds.), Addressing Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) and Other Transboundary Diseases for Improved Aquatic … Diseases for Improved Aquatic Animal Health in Southeast Asia, 22-24 February 2016, Makati City, Philippines, 2016 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) is an intergovernmental organization established in 1924 responsible for improving animal health and welfare worldwide to facilitate safe international trade of animals and animal products while avoiding unnecessary impediments to trade. OIE, as a reference organization of the World Trade Organization (WTO), works to set and update its international standards (OIE Codes and Manuals) regularly through transparent and democratic procedures. The Aquatic Code defines an OIE list of notifiable aquatic animal diseases according to the criteria for listing, which comprise consequences, spread and diagnosis. To be listed, a disease should meet the criteria of each characteristic defined in the Aquatic Code. The acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has been officially included in the OIE-listed diseases since May 2015 and officially enforced since 1 January 2016. To fulfill its overall vision which can be summarized by its slogan Protect animals and Preserve our Future, the OIE Regional Representation in Tokyo, Japan and Sub-Regional Representation in Bangkok, Thailand, are working in concert to provide regionally adapted services to OIE Members so that surveillance and control of animal diseases in the region may be strengthened.
Conference paperMG Bondad-Reantaso - In RV Pakingking Jr., EGT de Jesus-Ayson & BO Acosta (Eds.), Addressing Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) and Other Transboundary Diseases for Improved Aquatic … Diseases for Improved Aquatic Animal Health in Southeast Asia, 22-24 February 2016, Makati City, Philippines, 2016 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations Agricultural Outlook 2015-2024 reported that fisheries production worldwide is projected to expand by 19% between the 2012-14 base period and 2024, to reach 191 million metric tons (MT) and the main driver of this increase will be aquaculture, which is expected to reach 96 million MT by 2024, 38% higher than the base period (average 2012-14) level. Among the 7 key uncertainties that affect gains in productivity, the potential of animal disease outbreaks to affect aquaculture production and subsequently domestic and international markets are once again highlighted, although for the first time in this outlook. Another milestone document, the Blue frontiers: managing the environmental costs of aquaculture identified a number of fish health issues, including increased risk of the spread of pathogens and diseases with intensification, through increased movement of aquatic animals, inter-regional trade and introduction of new species and new strains, and through the use of trash fish or live feed; concerns on residues and development of drug resistant pathogens brought about by the abuse on the use antimicrobials and other veterinary drugs; limited availability of vaccines; environmental stressors that compromise the immune system; difficulties faced by developing countries in implementing international standards; and the need for legislation, enforcement and capacity building. The issues identified then and now are almost the same. Addressing animal health issues in aquaculture is very challenging because the sector is highly complex (with a wide range of diversity in terms of species, systems, practices and environment, each presenting different risks), its fluid environment, and the transboundary nature where fish is considered as one of the most traded commodity, aquatic animals require more attention in order to monitor their health: they are not visible except in tank holding conditions; they live in a complex and dynamic environment and feed consumption and mortalities are hidden under water. This paper looks at the status of a newly emerging disease of cultured shrimp, acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), which has been recognized as the most important non-viral disease threat to cultured shrimp. In particular, this paper presents the highlights of the International Technical Seminar/Workshop: EMS/AHPND: Government, Scientist and Farmer Responses held from 22-24 June 2015 in Panama City, Panama, which was organized under the auspices of an FAO inter-regional project TCP/INT/3502: Reducing and Managing the Risks of AHPND of Cultured Shrimp, being participated by 11 countries, namely: Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama and Peru from Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region and India, Iran, the Philippines and Sri Lanka from the Asian region. The Panama EMS/AHPND June 2015 event aimed to provide a platform to improve the understanding of the disease through the lens of governments, scientists and producers and collectively generate practical management and control measures. More than 100 stakeholders from 21 countries representing the government, academe and producer sectors participated in the event. The highlights contain the latest available information at that time (June 2015) about AHPND including the current state of knowledge about the causative agent, the host and geographical distribution, detection methods, risk factors, management and actions of regional and international organizations.
Morphometric and morphomeristic variations in five populations of indigenous Celebes goby Glossogobius celebius (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from Southern Luzon, Philippines MNC Corpuz, MVC Camacho & PP Ocampo -
Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 2013 - College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los BañosTo elucidate the population structure and pattern of morphological divergence of the indigenous Celebes goby Glossogobius celebius (Valenciennes, 1837), morphometric and morphomeristic characters of this species were compared among populations collected from five study sites in Southern Luzon, Philippines. Univariate analysis of variance confirmed significant differences among populations for 20 out of 23 allometrically-transformed metric characters (P<0.05), while nine meristic traits of five populations were comparatively homogeneous (P>0.05). Intrapopulation variability was very low (6.81-7.21%) for each location. Multivariate analysis of variance determined a very high significant group variability (P<0.05). Also, principal component analysis (PC1=36.60%; PC2=18.34%) and canonical variate analysis (CV1=44.59%; CV2=37.30%) identified the 2 super(nd) dorsal fin length, anal fin length, and the 2 super(nd) dorsal fin origin as the main significant contributors of population differentiation. Derived classification functions correctly classified an average of 68% individuals into their original groups. The canonical variate analysis plot exhibited high isolation of lacustrine populations (Lake Taal and Laguna de Bay) from riverine populations (Dampalit River, Alitaaw River and Pansipit River), with the latter having longer metric characters. Likewise, squared Euclidean distance similarity using metric data clearly produced two clusters representing both river and lake populations. This morphological divergence is suggested to be environmentally-induced (phenotypic plasticity) primarily by the differences in flow rate and temperature of the study sites.