Recent developments in the study and surveillance of koi herpesvirus (KHV) in Asia
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PublisherFish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society
- Conference Proceedings 
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Conference paperC Tu, SY Lin & HT Sung - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe first reported case of koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) occurred in northern Taiwan in December 2002. Later, there were three more cases in 2003 and one outbreak of KHVD in 2004. Externally, the affected fish did not show any prominent lesions except swollen gills sometimes accompanied by bleeding. Consistent histopathological findings were in the gill tissues, where hyperplasic epithelia and eosinophilic granular cells were observed within fused secondary lamellae. Electron microscopy revealed negativelystained icosahedral viral nucleocapsids measuring 112?1 nm in diameter. Also, the koi herpesvirus was detected in the homogenate of diseased fish by PCR assay using specific primers for koi herpesvirus (KHV). The amplicon was cloned, sequenced and compared with previously published data. The sequenced data showed 99% identity with the American KHV sequence in the GenBank. The above evidence suggests that KHVD have already invaded carp culture systems in Taiwan.
Conference paperGD Lio-Po - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe Koi Herpesvirus Disease (KHVD) is the newest viral disease that caused mass mortalities of affected koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The disease was initially reported in Israel and the United States in 2000. By March 2002, the first outbreak in Asia occurred in Indonesia that since then spread throughout the country. In early October 2003, KHVD outbreaks in Japan were first observed in Lake Kasumigaura and Kitaura of Ibaraki Prefecture.With the alarming spread of KHVD in Asia, strategies for its prevention and control need to be initiated. Hence, on 13 March 2004, the Fisheries Research Agency (FRA) of Japan, the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC), the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) of Japan and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) organized the "International Symposium on Koi Herpesvirus Disease" in Yokohama, Japan. It was a forum participated in by scientists from Japan, SEAFDEC member countries, United States, East Asia, Israel and Europe to exchange the latest information on the disease and its prevention and control.
Conference paperGD Lio-Po - In Proceedings of the 1st International Congress on Aquatic Animal Health Management and Diseases, 27-28 January 2009, 2009 - Veteran Council I.R.IRANIn Southeast Asia, the Viral Nervous Necrosis (VNN) or Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy (VER) and the Koi herpesvirus (KHV) infection are currently economically-important diseases of fishes. The VNN affects groupers (Epinephelus akaara, E. coioides, E. tauvina, E. fuscogutatus, E. septemfasciatus, E. malabaricus, E. moara and Cromileptes altivelis), Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer), mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) and milkfish (Chanos chanos) in Thailand, Taiwan, Indonesia, Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines and Vietnam. The Piscine nodavirus of the genus Betanodavirus, genotype red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) is predominantly involved. Research on fish species pathogenicity, optimum temperature, cell susceptibility, organ predeliction, pathology, virus reservoirs, experimental infection, vaccination and diagnosis have been reported. The Koi herpesvirus (KHV) infection causes significant mortalities in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio), koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) and ghost carp (common x koi cross, Cyprinus carpio goi). Outbreaks have been reported among koi in Hongkong in 2001; common carp in Indonesia, in 2002; koi in Taiwan in 2002; and common carp in Japan, in 2003. A dramatic spread of the disease was subsequently observed among most prefectures in Japan, with outbreaks that eventually involved koi carp. In Thailand, KHV was first diagnosed in March 2005 while in Singapore, in Sept 2005. By Feb 2006, two batches of Thai koi exported to Singapore, tested KHV PCR positive from which the virus was successfully isolated on KF-1 cells. In Malaysia, no KHV outbreak was reported but the presence of the virus was detected among koi carp exported to UK in 2000 and in 2001. In 2004, koi carp in Malaysia tested positive for KHV by nested PCR. To date, annual active surveillance of the virus in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Philippines and Vietnam from 2004 to 2008 showed these countries are free of KHV. Recent developments on research of KHV focused on pathogenicity, cell line susceptibility, fish size susceptibility, predilection to fish organs, persistence in fish, vaccine development and application, surveillance and gene sequence analyses of KHV strains. The extensive international trading of live ornamental koi fish has largely contributed to the global spread of KHV. Hence, KHV was recently added to the list of notifiable diseases to the World Organisation of Animal Health or the Office International des Epizooties (OIE).