Recent developments in the study and surveillance of koi herpesvirus (KHV) in Asia
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Koi herpesvirus infection causes significant mortalities in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio), koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) and ghost carp (common x koi cross, Cyprinus carpio koi). Outbreaks have been reported in many countries worldwide i.e. UK, Germany, Israel, USA, Belgium, South Africa, Switzerland, The Netherlands, France, Denmark, Austria, Italy, Luxemburg and Poland. The first outbreaks attributed to KHV in Asian countries were reported from Hong Kong in 2001; Indonesia in 2002; Taiwan in 2002; Japan in 2003; Thailand in 2005; and Singapore in 2005. Thereafter, research studies embarked on KHV focused on pathogenicity, cell line susceptibility, fish size susceptibility, predilection to fish organs, persistence in fish, vaccine development and application, surveillance and gene sequence analyses of KHV strains. To date, annual active surveillance of the virus in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, the Philippines and Vietnam showed that these countries were free of KHV from 2004 to 2007. Several strains of KHV apparently affect koi and common carp in this region indicating that transboundary movement of the virus has occurred not only in Asia but also from Europe and the Americas. The extensive international trade in live ornamental koi fish has largely contributed to the global spread of KHV. Hence, KHV disease (KHVD) was recently added to the list of notifiable diseases of the World Organisation of Animal Health or the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), an indication of the global significance of this viral infection.
Lio-Po, G. D. (2011). Recent developments in the study and surveillance of koi herpesvirus (KHV) in Asia. In M. G. Bondad-Reantaso, J. B. Jones, F. Corsin, & T. Aoki (Eds.), Diseases in Asian Aquaculture VII (pp. 13-28). Selangor, Malaysia: Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society.
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Lio-Po, Gilda D. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2004)The Koi Herpesvirus Disease (KHVD) is the newest viral disease that caused mass mortalities of affected koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The disease was initially reported in Israel and the United States in 2000. By ...
Tu, Chien; Lin, Shih-Yuh; Sung, Hwa-Tsung (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2004)The first reported case of koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) occurred in northern Taiwan in December 2002. Later, there were three more cases in 2003 and one outbreak of KHVD in 2004. Externally, the affected fish did not ...
Lio-Po, Gilda D. (Veteran Council I.R.IRAN, 2009)In Southeast Asia, the Viral Nervous Necrosis (VNN) or Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy (VER) and the Koi herpesvirus (KHV) infection are currently economically-important diseases of fishes. The VNN affects groupers ...