Recent developments in the study and surveillance of koi herpesvirus (KHV) in Asia
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PublisherFish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society
- Conference Proceedings 
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ArticleJ Kurita, K Yuasa, T Ito, M Sano, RP Hedrick, MY Engelsma, OLM Haenen, A Sunarto, EB Kholidin, HY Chou, MC Tung, L de la Peña, G Lio-Po, C Tu, K Way & T Iida -
Fish Pathology, 2009 - Japanese Society of Fish PathologyThree regions of koi herpesvirus (KHV) genomic DNA were compared for 34 samples from Japan, six from Indonesia, two from Taiwan, one from the Philippines, 13 from the Netherlands, one from the UK, one from the USA and one from Israel. The analyzed genomic regions included known PCR-detection targets (SphI-5, 9/5 and the thymidine kinase gene). The KHVs from Asian countries were very homogeneous, although two variants were noted based on a single nucleotide polymorphism. In contrast, seven variants were found in KHVs from outside of Asia, and although closely related to one another, they were clearly distinct from those from Asian. The results suggest that a clear genetic distinction exists between Asian and European (including each single isolate from the USA and Israel) types of KHV, and that unique types of KHV were independently introduced or emerged in the respective geographic locations.
Conference paperC Tu, SY Lin & HT Sung - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe first reported case of koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) occurred in northern Taiwan in December 2002. Later, there were three more cases in 2003 and one outbreak of KHVD in 2004. Externally, the affected fish did not show any prominent lesions except swollen gills sometimes accompanied by bleeding. Consistent histopathological findings were in the gill tissues, where hyperplasic epithelia and eosinophilic granular cells were observed within fused secondary lamellae. Electron microscopy revealed negativelystained icosahedral viral nucleocapsids measuring 112±1 nm in diameter. Also, the koi herpesvirus was detected in the homogenate of diseased fish by PCR assay using specific primers for koi herpesvirus (KHV). The amplicon was cloned, sequenced and compared with previously published data. The sequenced data showed 99% identity with the American KHV sequence in the GenBank. The above evidence suggests that KHVD have already invaded carp culture systems in Taiwan.
Conference paperGD Lio-Po - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe Koi Herpesvirus Disease (KHVD) is the newest viral disease that caused mass mortalities of affected koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The disease was initially reported in Israel and the United States in 2000. By March 2002, the first outbreak in Asia occurred in Indonesia that since then spread throughout the country. In early October 2003, KHVD outbreaks in Japan were first observed in Lake Kasumigaura and Kitaura of Ibaraki Prefecture.With the alarming spread of KHVD in Asia, strategies for its prevention and control need to be initiated. Hence, on 13 March 2004, the Fisheries Research Agency (FRA) of Japan, the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC), the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) of Japan and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) organized the "International Symposium on Koi Herpesvirus Disease" in Yokohama, Japan. It was a forum participated in by scientists from Japan, SEAFDEC member countries, United States, East Asia, Israel and Europe to exchange the latest information on the disease and its prevention and control.