Evaluation of density and cage design for the nursery and grow-out of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina Linne 1758
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The effect of stocking density and cage design on the growth, survival rate, and feed conversion ratio was evaluated for the nursery (11–15 mm in shell length) and juvenile grow-out (26–30 mm in shell length) of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. Abalone were fed Gracilaria sp. within a randomized 2 × 3 factorial experiment using 2 stocking densities (Tl (500 pieces/m2) and T2 (1,000 pieces/m2)) and 3 cages (D1, box; D2, mesh cage; D3, prefabricated multitier trays). In addition, 3 stocking densities (T1, 50 pieces/m ; T2, 100 pieces/m; T3, 200 pieces/m) were evaluated in the prefabricated multitier trays. We found that, in the nursery experiment, 4-mo-old tropical abalone juveniles reared for 90 d showed no significant differences in growth (shell length and body weight) and survival rates among the 3 nursery cages used (Tukey's post hoc test, P > 0.05). Feed conversion ratio, however, was lowest for the high-density treatment T1D3 (7.8 ± 0.76) and was significantly different from the low density treatment T1D1 (11.32 ± 1.2) and intermediate density treatment T1D2 (12.39 ± 1.12; t-test, P > 0.05). Conversely, at higher densities (T2), the same trend applied with abalone reared in multitier basket systems (T2D3), having the highest growth rates and survival rates (29.3 ± 0.07 mm average shell length (ASL) and 5.16 ± 0.52 g average body weight (ABW)), followed closely by those reared in mesh cages (T2D2) and boxes (T2D1). Feed conversion ratio was also lowest for T2D3 (7.56 ± 0.79) and was significantly lower than T2D1 and T2D2. Between treatments, however, abalone reared at lower densities (T1) had significantly higher growth and survival than those reared at higher densities (T2), regardless of the nursery cage used, indicating an inverse relationship between stocking density, growth, and survival. For the grow-out study, tropical abalone reared in multitier trays at low densities (T1) attained the highest growth in shell length and body weight (49.7 ± 0.11 mm ASL and 29.8 ± 2.6 g ABW, respectively) at 180 d of culture, which was significantly greater than those reared in the high-density treatment (T3) with significantly smaller shell length and body weight (43.8 ± 0.18 mm ASL and 21.2 ± 2.0 g ABW), but not significantly different than the intermediate density treatment. This trend started from day 60 of culture onward when analyzed using Duncan's multiple range test (P > 0.05). Survival rates were not significantly different among stocking density treatments, nor were feed conversion ratios. We recommend, for nursery rearing of abalone juveniles, using multitier trays (D3) or boxes (D1) at 500 pieces/m2 stocking density to attain a grow-out size of 26–30 mm in shell length in 90 days. A stocking density of 100 pieces/m2 is recommended to grow abalone in multitier trays to attain a cocktail size of 50 mm ASL and 30 g ABW in 180 d with survival rates between 85.6% and 83.1%.
CitationEncena II, V. C., de la Peña, M., & Balinas, V. T. (2013). Evaluation of density and cage design for the nursery and grow-out of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina Linne 1758.
PublisherNational Shellfisheries Association
The study was funded by the Southeast Asian Fisheries and Development Center, Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC/AQD), under the Technology Veriﬁcation and Demonstration Division (TVDD), through study codes 5320-T-TV-M0309I and 5302-T-TV-M0311I.
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BrochureAnon. - 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)Details the research conducted at AQD for the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. AQD has developed the rudiments of a hatchery protocol.
Evaluation of post-release behavior, recapture, and growth rates of hatchery-reared abalone Haliotis asinina released in Sagay Marine Reserve, Philippines MJH Lebata-Ramos, EFC Doyola-Solis, JBR Abrogueña, H Ogata, JG Sumbing & RC Sibonga -
Reviews in Fisheries Science, 2013 - Taylor & FrancisThe lucrative returns brought by abalone fisheries have caused overexploitation and decline of the wild population. In the Philippines, the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center has successfully produced Haliotis asinina seeds in the hatchery. Aside from utilizing these seeds in aquaculture, they are also being considered for future stock enhancement endeavors of the department. This study aimed to evaluate post release behavior, recapture and growth rates of hatchery-reared abalone juveniles released in the Sagay Marine Reserve. From the two release trials conducted, results showed that abalone of shell length >3.0 cm had lower mortality during onsite acclimation and utilized transport modules as temporary shelter for a shorter period after release. Both wild and hatchery-reared abalone preferred dead branching corals with encrusting algae as their habitat. Recapture rates were comparable between the wild (7.97%) and hatchery-reared (HR2) abalone (6.47%). Monthly growth rates were almost the same between wild (0.25 cm, 4.0 g), hatchery-reared (HR1: 0.27 cm, 4.6 g; HR2: 0.35 cm, 3.8 g) abalone. Moreover, hatchery-reared abalone were recaptured up to 513 days post-release, indicating viability of released stocks in the wild. Results of releases revealed that hatchery-reared abalone can grow and survive with their wild conspecifics.
Evaluation of agar-bound microparticulate diet as alternative food in abalone hatchery: Effects of agar concentrations and feeding frequencies MN Bautista-Teruel, MR de la Peña & AJ Asutilla -
Journal of Shellfish Research, 2013 - National Shellfisheries AssociationThe performance of an agar-bound microparticulate diet (A-MPD) was evaluated on feeding postlarval abalone Haliotis asinina, focusing on the effects of agar concentrations and feeding frequencies. Larval abalone, obtained from the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department hatchery, were reared in 60-L flow-through tanks with UV-filtered seawater. They were fed 1,200 mg A-MPD bound with either 5.0 mg/mL agar solution, 7.5 mg/mL agar solution, 10.0 mg/mL agar solution, and 12.5 mg/mL agar solution, or a natural diet consisting of diatoms at different feeding frequencies (daily, every other day, or every 2 d) starting at day 5. A 5 × 3 factorial experiment in a completely randomized design tested the effects of various treatments on postlarval settlement and survival after days 15 and 90. Scheffé's postcomparison test determined differences among treatments means. Postlarval settlement and survival were not significantly different in diets bound with higher agar concentrations and tested in 3 feeding frequencies. At lower levels of agar incorporation in diets, however, settlement and survival counts became significantly higher on daily feeding. Postlarval settlement and survival were significantly highest with abalone fed a diet bound with 7.5 mg/mL agar solution on a daily feeding frequency. Average percent weight loss in the feed was higher with lower levels of agar incorporation. Average particle size of both A-MPD and diatoms was 4–5 µm. Crude protein content of A-MPD was 42.7%; that of diatoms was 14.9%. A-MPD may be used as alternative food in abalone hatcheries with the incorporation of 7.5 mg/mL agar solution fed daily to abalone.