Courtship and mating behavior in Penaeus monodon Fabricius
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An illustrated description is given of the courtship and mating behaviour of P. monodon. Courtship and mating follow three distinct phases: (1) parallel swimming of male and female from the bottom to a height of 20-40 cm over distances of 50 to 80 cm; (2) male turns ventral side up to female; and (3) male turns perpendicular to female, arches body around the female and lifts head and tail. Mating is believed to take place generally at night, following moulting of the female. On the basis of thelycum structure and mating pattern, Penaeus may be divided into two groups: (1) those with a close thelycum in which mating follows moulting, such as P. merguiensis and P. monodon; and (2) those with open thelycum where mating takes place immediately preceding spawning, as in P. stylirostris and P. vannamei.