Now showing items 1-20 of 125

    • Article

      Notes on the external sex characters of Chanos chanos Forskal spawners 

      H Chaudhuri, J Juario, Samson R. & R Mateo - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      In this study, the authors did not find any visible differences between the sexes with reference to external features such as coloration, shape of head, snout and operculum, presence of tubercles or nasal pores, length, size and shape as well as any roughness in the various fins. However, the anal region of the mature milkfish exhibits discernible anatomical differences in the male and female. In the males, there are 2 main openings visible externally. These are the anterior anus and the posterior urogenital opening at the tip of the urogenital papilla. Internally, the vasa deferentia (male genital ducts) from the testes join into a common duct about 5-10 mm from the urogenital pore. The urinary pore opens into this common duct from the dorsal side. In addition, there are 2 small pores situated on each side of the base of the urogenital papilla opening ventrally into the coelom. In the females, there are 3 main openings in the anal region instead of 2 as found in the males. The anteriormost opening is the anus followed by the genital pore. The third opening is the urinary pore which is posterior to the genital pore located at the tip of the urogenital papilla.
    • Article

      Biology and farming of the green mussel Mytilus smaragdinus 

      WG Yap, C Orano & M Tabbu - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Biological investigations were carried out in Sapian Bay, Capiz from November 1975 to December 1976 with samplings conducted fortnightly. Histological studies on the gonad reveal a high percentage of ripe and spent females during the month of April and May, and ripe to near ripe during November to December. However, larval counts were highest on February 25, 1976 with 253 mytilid larvae per haul compared to 0-79 per haul during all other months. The high larval count was followed by the highest spat settlement during the next sampling period two weeks later, with the spat collector set in the water during the February 25 sampling. The four materials tested, blue polypropylene fiber rope, black polypropylene fiber, and coir rope, all had their highest spat counts during this period with an average of 471 spats per standard 10 cm rope piece. The range during the other time periods is 2-283 spats. Of the 4 materials tested, the black fibrillated polypropylene film had the highest larval counts in 15 out of a total of 25 sampling periods. The blue rope was the poorest spat collector. Coconut husk was tested later on and it proved to have a very high catchability, with spats completely enveloping the husk surface. Growth monitored from one cohort in Sapian Bay averaged 10 mm per month. 50-60 mm is considered marketable size. Trial growth experiments with transplanted mussels were also conducted at Igang Bay in Guimaras Island, Makato River in Aklan, and a milkfish pond in Leganes, Iloilo. Survival in Igang was less than 50% after the second week, and the condition of the surviving mussels can be described only as watery with the mantle completely transparent. Mortality was minimal in Makato but the growth rate was only 30% that of Sapian Bay. The pond experiments were terminated due to severe crab predation.
    • Article

      Salinity preference of the milkfish Chanos chanos Forskal 

      JV Juario & C Dueñas - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Extended abstract only.
    • Article

      Ecology and life history of penaeid shrimps 

      H Motoh, N Solis & E Caligdong - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Fourteen species of penaeid shrimps with commercial value in Batan Bay and Tigbauan-Guimbal waters were identified as follows: Penaeus monodon, P. semisulcatus, P. japonicus, Metapenaeus ensis, M. burkenroadi, M. endeavouri, Metapenaeopsis palmensis, M. stridulans, Trachypenaeus fulvus, and Parapenaeus longipes. Among the 14 penaeids, P. semisulcatus, M. ensis and M. palmensis were found to be the dominant species within each genus. There are seven existing fishing gears for shrimping in the Batan Bay and Tigbauan-Guimbal waters: fish corrals, lift net, filter net, gill net, skimming net, baby trawler and commercial trawler. In general, female penaeids are larger than males. The largest P. monodon female measured was 81 mm in carapace length with 23 g in body weight. The largest male measuring 59 mm in carapace length with 119 g of body weight was caught in Batan Bay. Judging from spermatozoa occurrence on both sexes of P. monodon, the biological minimum size for male is 37 mm in carapace length and 49 mm for female. A total of 133 Penaeus postlarvae obtained from the offshore were identified by comparison with those reared in the laboratory. The postlarvae of P. japonicus-latisulcatus complex were quite dominant (60.2%), followed by P. semisulcatus (18.0%), and P. merguiensis-indicus complex (17.3%). The number of P. monodon postlarvae was relatively small (4.5%). The modal carapace length of P. monodon postlarvae from the offshore was 1.3 mm with three or four dorsal and no ventral spines on the rostrum, while P. monodon fry from the shoreline had 2.3 mm with five or six dorsal and one or two ventral spines.
    • Article

      Identification and culture of common diatoms as possible feed for Penaeus monodon 

      T Pimoljinda - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Diatoms were collected from Buyuan Bay, and from the hatchery tanks at Tigbauan, to determine the commonly occurring species, the feasibility of culturing these species, and the potential of these selected species as food for larval P. monodon. The commonly occurring diatoms were identified as Chaetoceros calcitrans, Navicula grimmei, Nitzchia seriata, Nitzchia closterium and Amphiprora sp. These diatoms were isolated and unialgal cultures prepared. Protein content analysis using the micro-Kjildahl method gave the following result: C. calcitrans, 11 . 78%; Nitzchia seriata, 25%; Nitzchia closterium, 30 . 5%; Navicula grimmei, 9 . 06% and Amphiprora sp. 8 . 96%.

      Feeding experiments were conducted to determine acceptability of the different diatom species and percentage survival of larval stages Z1 - M2. Larvae were placed in 4-l capacity plastic containers with a stocking density of 10/l. The results of several feeding trials using the different mass-produced diatoms are summarized.

      From the data gathered, C. calcitrans appears to be the most promising candidate as feed for zoea and mysis stages of P. monodon. The average percentage survival of C. calcitrans was 63 . 76% for the 3 trials, and as high as 82 . 22% in the third trial. Comparatively high percentage survival of larvae was also recorded when Nitzchia seriata (48 . 17%) and Nitzchia closterium (67 . 6%) were given as feed, while both Amphiprora sp. and Navicula grimmei gave 0% survival. The poor results with Amphiprora sp. and Navicula grimmei may be due to their low protein content (8 . 96% and 9 . 06%, respectively) and the inability of the larvae to ingest them. Navicula and Amphiprora were observed to cling to the appendages of the larvae and to settle down in the medium making them unavailable to the larvae. Low survival was also noted when frozen C. calcitrans was used (14 . 25%). This may be due partly to the effect of the floculating agent (ALSO4.25 g/l) used in concentrating the diatoms.

      When protein contents of C. calcitrans, N. seriata and N. closterium are compared, the 2 Nitzchia species have relatively higher protein contents than C. calcitrans and, therefore, could be the more desirable feed candidates. However, few feeding trials were made using Nitzchia so that additional investigations will have to be done on this aspect.
    • Article

      Effect of nitrite, ammonia, and temperature on P. monodon larvae 

      FF Catedral, DD Gerochi, AT Quibuyen & CM Casalmir - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      P. monodon larvae were studied for the effects of temperature, ammonia, and nitrite on survival. Toxicity levels of nitrite were found to vary with larval stage. Larvae could tolerate ammonia up to about 10 ppm, with the effect more clearly shown by the zoea stage. Survival and growth were not significantly affected by temperature, although moulting was enhanced at temperatures higher than 29°C. Larvae of P. monodon have lower tolerance toward nitrite and ammonia compared to postlarvae. Although high survival was obtained at low levels of nitrite and ammonia, it is still necessary to know their effects on metabolism, in order to examine possible biochemical parameters for diagnosing sublethal toxicity or stress.
    • Article

      Notes on ovarian rematuration of ablated sugpo (prawn) Penaeus monodon Fabricius 

      JH Primavera & E Borlongan - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      To what extent spent P. monodon females can remature and spawn successive broods is an important question in terms of recycling spawners in a commercially viable operation. Corollary to this is the quantity and quality of fry from rematured females in comparison to those from first spawning. Of 347 experimental females, only 10.1% had a second spawning, and 1.4% a third spawning. To a large degree the low rate of rematuration is due to high spawner mortality - average survival period after spawning was only 6 days in a sample of 176 spawners. It took an average of 23 days after ablation for a prawn with undeveloped ovaries to mature and spawn. An ablated female may have another spawning in as little as 5 days after the previous one. Average fecundity was 180,000 eggs per second spawning, and 140,000 eggs per third spawning. The average number of eggs from first spawning ablated females was 110-120,000. Hatching rate was lower for rematuration: 44% for second spawnings, and 35% for third spawnings, as compared to 64% for first maturation.
    • Article

      Amino acid analysis of P. monodon muscle 

      FF Catedral & VA Dy-Peñaflorida - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Figures for the amino acid composition of Penaeus monodon, are tabulated, and compared to those for white tuna meat.
    • Article

      The propagation of the mud crab Scylla serrata (F.) de Haan 

      AFD Laviña & AS Buling - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The mud crab Scylla serrata is an important commercial species found in many brackish areas in the Philippines. During spawning and hatching, the berried females migrate to the sea. Seeds for pond stocking are obtained from the wild. Because of the unpredictability of seed supply, there is a need to propagate the species artificially. Thus, spawning, larval rearing, maturation, and rematuration of the species are being studied. The first attempts at hatching S. serrata were successful with rates varying between 75% and 90%. Two out of three trials on larval rearing yielded a few megalops. The first zoeal stages were fed diatoms, rotifers, Artemia salina, and bread yeast. Overfeeding programs were implemented during the critical premolting periods to prevent weakening of the larvae and lessen cannibalism. Larval weakening during the premolt makes them susceptible to attacks by fungi like Lagenidium and ciliates like Vorticella. S. serrata larvae survived salinity levels as low as 15 ppt until the 14th day of rearing. Other larvae were able to survive in salinities of 30-32 ppt for 8 to 13 days. Zoeal molting was hastened by lowering the salinity to 25-27 ppt. Artificial broodstocking of juveniles and adult crabs has been made possible using a simple refuge system made of three-compartmented hollow blocks. This system has been helpful in minimizing fighting among crabs. Remarkable growth rates have been observed with feeds like mussel meat and trash fish. Average growth increments of 11 mm carapace length and 20 . 35 g body weight have been observed every fortnight. A newly spent spawner could gain additional weight of 22.5 g in only 6 days. Feeding rates of juveniles and adult crabs have been established based on the average body weight from an experiment using mussel meat. Crabs feed more at night. In another experiment, eyestalk ablation was found to be effective in inducing growth and mating. Aside from hastening the molting process, copulation is induced even among the small crabs (average carapace length = 55 mm). Natural mating lasts about 26 hr. A copulation which lasted for seven days with a break in between was observed.
    • Article

      Preliminary chemical and physical evaluation of some formulated feeds for P. monodon 

      J Kalaw, L Bandonil & V Dy - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The culture of Penaeus monodon has explicitly defined the need for diet formulations or supplementary feeds that would promote optimum growth and survival of the animal. A total of 28 feed combinations were developed for P. monodon. Fish meal, shrimp head meal, squid head meal, Ascetes spp. rice bran, and soybean cake were used as primary ingredients in these feeds. The commercial vitamin mix No. 22 was added to the dry ingredients. Gelatinized corn starch and wheat flour were used as binders. The pellets were extruded using a portable kitchen grinder with a diameter of 4 mm. The products were either sun-dried for 8 hours or oven-dried overnight at 50 degree C to stabilize moisture at 8-10%. The pellets were then kept in covered glass bottles and stored in the laboratory at room temperature. The cost of the feeds excluding labour were also computed. The pellets were analyzed for protein, fat, carbohydrate, crude fiber, ash, and moisture contents using standard procedures. They were also analyzed for water stability. To test the stability of pellets in water, 2-g samples were placed in plankton nets (mesh #40) and suspended in water for two, and six hours. The undissolved samples were then vacuum-dried and the moisture determined. Cost of the feeds ranged from P1.10 to P2.60 per kg depending on the feed ingredient. Squid and Ascetes spp. were rather expensive for use as basic ingredients. Proximate analysis of dry weight showed percentage protein content ranged from 20-63 g; fat, 8-20 g; carbohydrate (by difference), 11-36 g; ash, 8-28 g; moisture, 6-11 g; and crude fiber, 5 . 13 g. Stability tests showed that after two hours, 35-88% of solids remained intact and after 6 hours, 20-55% of the pellets remained undissolved. When a pellet disintegrates easily, pollution of the water occurs. Chances for the shrimp to feed on the pellet is minimized when the pellet is unstable. Thus, the search for a more compact feed pellet has to be continued.
    • Article

      Preliminary biological evaluation of some formulated feeds for P. monodon 

      F Pascual & L Bandonil - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Rice bran is widely used by fish farmers as supplementary feed while soybean cake is used both as feed and as fertilizer in fishponds. Both fish meal and shrimp head have been found acceptable as feed ingredients. However, not much is known of the acceptability and efficiency of a mixture of these ingredients as feed for Penaeus monodon larvae. Ninety 127-day old P. monodon were measured for length and weight and were randomly divided into nine aquaria each containing 20 liters of water. These were fed lampirong for two months previous to the study. There were three replications for each treatment. Length, weight, and survival rates were used to compare the efficiency of the diets. Weighed amounts of pellets equivalent to 100% of the body weight were fed during the first three days and reduced to 50% thereafter. A stopwatch was used to determine the length of time that elapsed before the shrimps would approach the pellet. Ten shrimps approximately 4 months in age were placed in 10 liters of water in a 25-liter aquarium. Two grams of each pellet type were placed simultaneously on opposite sides of the aquarium. The time that elapsed from the moment the pellets sunk to the bottom up to the time that any one shrimp approached the pellets was recorded. The group fed the imported pellets gained the most. Those fed FP-2s-77 elongated faster than those fed FP-1s-77. Survival rate of those fed FP-2s-77 was 37% while those fed imported pellets was 73%. Both 1s and 2s pellets disintegrated in water easily but the imported pellets were stable even after six hours in water. The attractability test for the pellets showed that the prawns were more readily attracted to the pellets 1s and 2s than to the imported pellets.
    • Article

      The effect of various protein levels on the growth and survival rates of Penaeus monodon Fabricius 

      A Khannapa - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Postlarvae of tiger prawns, P. monodon , were fed with various protein levels of 0; 30; 40 and 50%, fish meal and rice bran were combined and pelletized for 16 wks. Prawns used had an average mean length of 1.2 mm and an average mean weight of 5.5 mg. Nitrite, ammonia, dissolved oxygen content, temperature and pH were monitored. After one month of feeding, growth increments of postlarvae fed with 30% protein diet were significantly different from those given 0; 40 and 50%. Survival rate of the group fed 40% protein was higher (81.7%) but was not significantly different from those fed 30% (68.0%). The highest feed efficiency was obtained from the 30% protein pellets (4.6). At the end of 16 weeks, growth increment of 40% protein level was significantly different from the 30% and 50% protein levels, but the survival rate was not signficantly different from the 30% protein level. Feed conversion for the 40% protein diet was 2.8.
    • Article

      Isolation and culture in artificial media of Lagenidium from Penaeus monodon larvae 

      MCL Baticados, GL Po, CR Lavilla & RQ Gacutan - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Fungal infection of P. monodon larvae is a problem in hatchery operations. The fungus, which attacks the nauplius to postlarval stages and causes up to 100% mortality, has been tentatively identified as belonging to the genus Lagenidium. This pathogenic organism has recently been isolated and cultured. A description is given of the fungus, and features of its biology and pathology are discussed.
    • Article

      Viability of Penaeus monodon eggs after simulated transport conditions 

      JH Primavera, E Borlongan & RA Posadas - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      P. monodon spawners, transported from maturation pens suffer from stress which in turn may lead to lowered spawning rate or fertility. Spawning the females in the maturation site and transporting the eggs to the hatchery site is being considered as an alternative. Egg transport costs may be reduced to a minimum by using eggs from ablated spawners, transported at high density with no aeration. Experiments on higher egg densities as well as on transport of nauplii should, however, be undertaken.
    • Article

      Notes on the induced maturation and spawning in four-month-old Penaeus monodon Fabricius by eyestalk ablation 

      JH Primavera & E Borlongan - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The ablation technique consisted of making an incision across the eyeball to allow free flow of fluids while holding the prawn under water, squeezing the eyeball contents outwards, and pinching hard the eyestalk tissue. The cut area heals completely in about a week; no application of antibiotics is necessary. Spent spawners were tagged with thin brass rings (Rodriguez, 1976) around the unablated eyestalk for a separate experiment on rematuration. Two spawning yielding approximately 277,000 eggs were obtained three weeks after ablation, followed four days later by two more spawnings with 160,000 eggs; all four spawners weighed more than 100 g. With a hatching rate of 98% and 78% for the first and second batch, respectively, the spawnings produced viable nauplii. Water temperatures as low as 23°C due to a delayed cold spell in March depressed molting; weakened larvae had to be discharged at the mysis stage. Although ovarian development continued, no further spawnings were obtained due mainly to the onset of bacterial and fungal disease. Infection is initiated in injured portions of the exoskeleton, sometimes penetrating right through the muscles to the ovarian tissues. The non-flowthrough conditions and mussel meat feeding led to fouling of the culture water resulting in consecutive mortalities caused by disease. Female P.monodon held in maturation pens were ablated at the age of 15 months (Santiago, et al., 1976); they averaged only 16 g body weight after four months growth in ponds. In another experiment, pond-reared P.monodon females ranging from 50 to 80 g were ablated at approximately seven months (Aquacop, 1977). The present results show a minimum age of four months from postlarve that P.monodon is capable of ovarian development and spawning upon ablation. However, maturation is probably affected by size as well as age - the four-month old females weighed an average of 100 g in contrast to the smaller animals in the earlier experiments.
    • Article

      Bioenergetics of the freshwater prosobranch Idiopoma angularis Muller in Laguna de Bay 

      EA Baluyut - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      This study was made as an attempt to investigate some of the ecological aspects of the freshwater snail Idiopoma angularis Muller in a modern framework of energy flow and mathematical models. It offers the first investigation of respiration (as related to temperature and body size), production (growth), and excretion in the prosobranch I. angularis in Laguna Lake.
    • Article

      Effect of temperature on the oxygen consumption of Penaeus monodon postlarvae 

      FF Catedral & R Sayson - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Extended abstract only.
    • Article

      Use of fermented kitchen waste in rearing Penaeus monodon larvae 

      H Motoh - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Fermented vegetable and kitchen wastes are available as feeds for not only zoea but also mysis and up to certain points in the postlarval stages of sugpo, Penaeus monodon. It is recommended that the hatchery use fermented wastes as larval feed for P. monodon when diatoms or brine shrimp nauplii are lacking or in short supply. Among three stages namely, zoea, mysis and postlarva, the survival rate during postlarva particularly after P4 was quite low. The problems encountered are as follows: (a) how to prevent fermented particles from lumping, (b) how to prevent them from easily sinking to the bottom, and, (c) how to prevent bacteria and fungi, particularly Lagenidium sp blooming.
    • Article

      Effects of furanace on Brachionus 

      MC Baticados, RQ Gacutan & PJ Gutierrez - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Tiger prawn P.monodon) larvae utilize Brachionus a rotifer, as food in the Zoea 3 and mysis stages when they change from an herbivorous to an omnivorous diet. The present work aims to show the effects of furanace on the population growth of Brachionus. Cultures of Brachionus were obtained and fed with Chlorella at a density of 1-2x10 SUP-6 cells/ml. Five liters of the culture water were placed in each of 4 white, circular, 152x304 mm plastic basins. The mean initial densities of the rotifer ranged from 26 . 5 to 38 . 5 individuals/ml. The concentrations of furanace were 0, 1, 2 and 3 mg /l. The cultures were vigorously aerated. Population growth was observed after 3, 6, and 9 hours of exposure. The cultures were thoroughly mixed before samples were taken to ensure an almost equal distribution of the rotifers in the water. To facilitate the counting of the rotifer, one drop of Lugol s solution was added to each sample. This immobilizes the rotifer as well as stops further reproduction. Individuals with only the lorica left or with badly deformed lorica were considered dead. Population counts were done using a Sedgwick-Rafter counting chamber. Among the different durations of exposure, the percentage survival of the populations in the furanace baths were highest after 3 hr. There were slight increases in the control and 2 mg/l and slight decreases in 1 and 3 mg/l. The differences in the mean densities are statistically insignificant at . 01 significance level. After a 6-hr exposure, the control population reached its peak density with a survival of 89%. Populations in furanace baths decreased to 88 . 5% in both 2 and 3 mg /l followed closely by 87% in 1 mg/l. Again, no statistical differences exist among all the levels. The mean percentage survival in 1 and 2 mg/l increased (89% and 91%, respectively) after a 9-hr expsoure, while those in the control and 3 mg/l decreased to 86 . 5% and 88 . 25%, respectively. There were no marked differences in appearance noted among the individuals in furanace baths and those in the control.
    • Article

      Methods of harvesting and preservation of the diatom Chaetoceros calcitrans 

      OM Millamena, EC Jereos & IR Gorriceta - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Diatom culture and larval feeding experiments were conducted to test the viability and acceptability of preserved algal concentrates. C. calcitrans is characterised by the presence of setae which keep them suspended in cultures and make autoflocculation very difficult. Flocculation was induced by the addition of a floc-forming chemical. Using the optimum conditions, it was possible to harvest the algae within 1-h settling time and with about 84% recovery. The viability of frozen Chaetoceros was determined by actual cell reproduction. Preliminary feeding experiments showed that Chaetoceros can be successfully used as a substitute for fresh diatoms as feed for Penaeus monodon larvae. Simple freezing techniques, with or without the use of protectants has been found convenient for preserving algal concentrates in small volumes for both feeding and culture purposes.