Osmoregulation in Penaeus monodon: effects of molting and external salinity.
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The effect of molting on osmotic, chloride, calcium and total protein concentrations in the hemolymph of the shrimp Penaeus monodon was investigated. Regardless of medium salinity, tissue water as well as osmotic and chloride concentrations in the hemolymph became stable within one day after molting. In general, total protein concentrations remained stable throughout the molting cycle. Large fluctuations in hemolymph calcium were observed 0-6 hours after molt. In low salinities, hemolymph calcium peaked at 3 hours postmolt to values 30% higher than those during molt. These values subsequently decreased rapidly one after molting, when hemolymph concentrations achieved intermolt values. At 44 ppt, calcium concentrations were highest during molt, then gradually declined by about 15% to intermolt values.
In: Maclean, J.L., Dizon, L.B., Hosillos, L.V. (eds.) The First Asian Fisheries Forum. Proceedings of the First Asian Fisheries Forum, 26-31 May 1986, Manila, Philippines. Manila, Philippines: Asian Fisheries Society. pp. 637-640
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Osmotic and chloride regulation in the hemolymph of the tiger prawn Penaeus monodon during molting in various salinities The effect of molting on osmotic and chloride concentrations in the blood of the prawn Penaeus monodon Fabricius (20±3 g) at various salinities was investigated. Prawns were obtained from ponds in Iloilo, Philippines, in 1984. They were stocked in salinities of 8, 20, 32 and 44‰, and their hemolymph was sampled during molt (Time 0), and then 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 10 and 14 d after molting. Prawns during and immediately after molt tended to conform to the environmental osmolality. Subsequent postmolt (≧0.5 d) stages displayed more divergence from external salinity. The isosmotic point was higher (940±30 mOsm kg-1) during molt than during intermolt (663±8 mOsm/kg-1), suggesting different osmotic requirements in early molt. Hyperregulation of hemolymph chloride below 20‰ S, as well as isoionic point (301±6 mM), were independent of molting stage. At 20‰ S and above, newly molted (0 to 0.25 d post-molt) individuals tended to conform to the external chloride concentration while intermolt (≧0.5 d) post-molt individuals did not. Contribution of hemolymph chloride to hemolymph osmolality was greater during intermolt than during ecdysis, suggesting an important role for other negatively charged ions during molt. When molt occurred in 20‰ S (the test salinity most similar to the isoionic salinity), there was little or no change in hemolymph osmolality or chloride concentration from 0 to 14 d postmolt. At 8, 32 and 44‰ S, the change from molt to intermolt values in hemolymph osmotic and chloride concentrations was hyperbolic. Non-linear least-squares regression showed that prawns generally achieved intermolt values within 1 d after molting. Prawns at intermolt regulated hemolymph osmolality (620 to 820 mOsm kg-1) and chloride concentration (300 to 450 mM) at a much narrower range than during molt (520 to 1 170 mOsm kg-1 and 250 to 520 mM, respectively). Hemolymph osmolality was a more sensitive indicator of physiological response than hemolymph chloride concentration. Distribution and culture of P. monodon might be limited in low salinities by its ability to maintain a hemolymph osmolality ≧500 mOsm kg-1 during molt and ≧600 mOsm kg-1 in intermolt, and in high salinities by its capacity to reduce the hemolymph osmolality from values at molt to those in intermolt. Osmotic and chloride concentrations in the blood of P. monodon clearly varied with both molt stage and salinity of the medium. Dependence on external factors, however, gradually declined in older molt stages, suggesting a reduction in integument permeability and greater development of ion absorption/secretion mechanisms as the exoskeleton hardened.
Effect of different sizes of saline red tilapia hybrid Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus x O. mossambicus Peters on the growth of luminous bacteria Vibrio harveyi EA Tendencia & MR de la Peña -
The Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 2010 - College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los BañosLuminous bacterial disease caused by Vibrio harveyi has devasted the shrimp industry. The use of different strains of tilapia and other fish species polycultured with shrimp cultured at a salinity of 24 ppt to control luminous bacteria has been reported. These species, however, could not tolerate salinities higher than 24 ppt. Alternative species/strains that could be used to control luminous bacteria at high salinities need to be investigated. Likewise, the effect of fish size on the growth of luminous bacteria is worth studying. Shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius) were stocked in concrete tanks filled with 34 ppt cartridge filtered seawater. Tanks were stocked with two sizes (16 pcs, average body weight (ABW) = 55 g and 6 pcs ABW=250 g) of the red tilapia hybrid Oreochromis mossambicus Peters x O. niloticus Linnaeus, except for the tanks that served as the control. Luminous bacteria (V. harveyi) were inoculated into the tank water to a density of 104 Cfu mL-1. Significantly lower luminous bacterial count was observed in tanks with either of the two sizes of red tilapia hybrid compared with the control, after 5-7 d. Bacteria isolated from the fish feces, mucus and rearing water; and the fish feces and mucus themselves demonstrated anti-V. harveyi activity. Results showed that the red tilapia hybrid could be used to control luminous bacteria at salinities as high as 34 ppt and that the size of the fish did not affect its efficiency. The ability of the red tilapia hybrid to control the growth of the luminous bacteria V. harveyi is attributed to different factors such as the mucus, the feces and the bacteria associated with tilapia culture. Bacteria associated with the fish mucus and feces also contributed to the anti-V. harveyi activity of these biological substances.
ArticleThe osmotic and chloride regulation by 5- to 10-g intermolt Penaeus indicus was investigated by abruptly changing medium salinity from seawater (32 ppt) to test salinities of 8, 20, 32 (control) or 40 ppt. Hemolymph samples were taken at 0, and then at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 days after the change in salinity, and were analyzed for osmolality and chloride concentrations. Tissue water content was also determined. Throughout the study period, daily mortality was low (1.8%), and was the same among control and experimental salinities. Hemolymph osmolality and chloride as well as tissue water content were stable within 0.25 to 0.5 days after the abrupt salinity change, except for tissue water content at 8 ppt which did not reach a steady state for 2 days. Intermolt P. indicus exhibited hyperosmotic or hyperionic regulation in salinities below isosmotic or isoionic salinities, and hypoosmotic or hypoionic regulation in those above. Hemolymph osmolality and chloride were positive linear functions of external osmolality and chloride concentrations (slope=0.24±0.02 and 0.20±0.02, respectively). Isosmotic and isoionic values were 780 mOsm/kg and 330 mM, respectively. Percentage tissue water decreased as a function of external osmolality (−0.0056% kg mOsm−1) and hemolymph osmolality (−0.0232% kg mOsm−1), indicating that tissue cells were relatively permeable to hemolymph water, and that the hemolymph acted as a barrier to buffer the cells from large fluctuations in external salinity. These results indicate that, like many penaeids, P. indicus is a good osmoregulator suitable for culture in brackishwater ponds where there are large fluctuations in salinity.