Marine fish hatchery: developments and future trends
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The basic procedures for producing marine fish fry in hatcheries developed for milkfish fry production nearly 3 decades ago are the basis of fry production systems for all other marine fish species that are now reared in hatcheries in the Philippines and other Southeast Asian countries. These include large-scale microalgae production in outdoor tanks, feeding of appropriate sized rotifer grown on microalgae such as Nannochlorum during the first feeding phase, and shifting to larger prey such as Artemia towards the latter stages of production. In recent years, the increasing demand for high-value species such as groupers, sea bass, red snapper, and pompano in both local and export markets has encouraged a number of hatcheries to produce fry to supply the requirements of fish cage farmers. Techniques are modified using information from research institutions and multi-national firms active in developing products and equipment to improve commercial production of these species. Larval feeds of appropriate sizes, forms and presentation for various larval stages incorporating essential nutrients, micronutrients, and feed stimulants are now available in the market. Diseases in marine fish hatcheries have become common occurrences such that various chemotherapeutants, vaccines, and immunostimulants are now available and increasingly being applied in fish hatcheries. Technological developments in hatchery systems, such as the use of recirculating systems, water pretreatment protocols (ozonation, mircrofiltration, UV light treatment) are also increasingly being adopted by commercial establishments. A critical link between fry production and production of marketable fish is fingerling/ juvenile production in nurseries. Fry are commonly grown in brackishwater fishponds to appropriate size for stocking in fish cages. Methods to improve growth through proper feeding and nutrition, eliminate or reduce disease occurrence and parasite infestation, reduce cannibalism in cannibalistic species such as sea bass, grouper and snappers are active areas of research. Nursery production is integrated with fry production in large commercial facilities but is also done by small-scale fish farmers who have access to fry either from the wild or hatcheries. Commercial hatcheries adopt fingerling production from well-studied species in developed countries. Smallscale farmers however still rely on zooplanktons collected from the wild such as copepods, Moina, mysids, and trash fish as feed. Production is dependent on availability of feed sources and susceptibility to pathogens and parasites that come with the feed. It can also be erratic since smallscale farms are vulnerable to changes in climate and weather conditions. Further technological advancement in marine fish hatcheries will increasingly be led by commercial establishments and industries developing equipment like photobioreactor for microalgae to produce algal paste, or methods to develop intensive systems for rotifer culture. Research institutions will however need to support the needs of the small-scale farmers and hatchery operators who may not be able to apply costly products from these companies by developing innovative simple techniques that can improve culture systems such as producing fry and fingerlings in mesocosm pond system, appropriate use of probiotics as water stabilizer, and production of zooplankton in ponds.
Marte, C. L., & Toledo, J. D. (2015). Marine fish hatchery: developments and future trends. In M. R. R. Romana-Eguia, F. D. Parado-Estepa, N. D. Salayo, & M. J. H. Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production of Aquatic Species: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA) (pp. 189-200). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Seed (aquaculture); Small scale aquaculture; Algal culture; Feeding; Food organisms; Zooplankton; Fry; Seed production; Fish larvae; Hatcheries; Marine fish; Research institutions; Fish diseases; Food composition; Cage culture; Biotechnology; Nannochlorum; Chanos chanos; Artemia; Moina; Marine fish; Hatchery; Larval rearing; Nursery; Broodstock; Philippines
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Susceptibility of hatchery-reared snubnose pompano Trachinotus blochii to natural betanodavirus infection and their immune responses to the inactivated causative virus Mass mortality of snubnose pompano Trachinotus blochii fry exhibiting dark coloration, anorexia, and abnormal swimming behavior was recently documented at the hatchery of the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Philippines. Samples of brain tissues were collected from affected fish and processed for RT-PCR amplification and virus isolation in cell culture. Infected E-11 cells exhibited cytopathic effect characteristic of betanodavirus. Histopathology of moribund fish showed pronounced vacuolations in the brain, spinal cord, and retina. An RT-PCR product of approximately 430 bp was amplified from the culture supernatant of betanodavirus-infected E-11 cells and sequenced. Sequencing of the T4 region of the coat protein gene (RNA 2) revealed clustering of the isolated virus within the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus type. The pathogenicity of the isolated betanodavirus in healthy pompano juveniles and fry was determined via intramuscular injection and immersion challenges, respectively. Higher mortality rates were obtained in challenged fish compared with the controls. An inactivated vaccine was subsequently prepared by treating the clarified betanodavirus with formalin. Pompano juveniles intraperitoneally injected with the inactivated vaccine exhibited neutralizing antibodies from days 15 (mean titer 1:240) to 125 (1:560) with the highest titer noted at day 64 (1:2240) post-vaccination. Additionally, pompano fry bath-vaccinated and consequently bath-challenged with betanodavirus at day 35 post-vaccination showed higher survival rate compared with the control, indicating the potential of the inactivated betanodavirus vaccine against VNN in pompano fry and juveniles.
Immunolocalisation of nervous necrosis virus indicates vertical transmission in hatchery produced Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer Bloch)—A case study IS Azad, KP Jithendran, MS Shekhar, AR Thirunavukkarasu & LD de la Pena -
Aquaculture, 2006 - ElsevierA probable vertical mode of piscine nodavirus transmission is reported in the present investigation based on a case of nodavirus associated larval mortalities in hatchery produced Asian sea bass. Polyclonal rabbit anti-SJNNV antibodies (SGWak97) detected the viral antigens in the tissue sections from the eggs and the larvae at different time intervals from − 1 to 42 days post hatch (dph). Immunopositive ovarian connective tissue associated with the oocytes along with the progressive localization of the viral antigens in the brain, spinal cord, liver, stomach and dermal musculature during the larval development indicates a probable vertical transmission of nodavirus in the Asian sea bass. The surviving larger larvae, from the batch suffering mass mortalities, produced very intense immunofluorescent positivity in the liver, stomach and dermal musculature. Results of this investigation demonstrating a possibility of vertical transmission of the nodavirus emphasize the need for screening of eggs and larvae for evolving suitable preventive and prophylactic health management strategies.
Mass mortality of hatchery-reared milkfish (Chanos chanos) and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) caused by Amyloodinium ocellatum (Dinoflagellida) Outbreaks of heavy infestation by the parasitic dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum in hatchery-reared milkfish (Chanos chanos) and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) caused 100% mortality events in hatcheries in the Philippines. Parasites were recorded on the body surface in 14-day-old milkfish fry and on both skin and gills in 2-month-old snapper. Trophonts of A. ocellatum caused local erosions of fish skin and degeneration of epithelial cells at the sites of the parasite's attachment to the body surface. Separation and hyperplasia of gill epithelium and fusion of secondary lamellae at the distal parts of the gill filaments were common. High pathogenicity of A. ocellatum to fish may be attributed to the severe alterations of the fish gills, the disruption of the host's skin, and feeding of trophonts on hosts' epithelial cells. In-vivo treatments of A. ocellatum-infested snapper with a 1 h freshwater bath and 200 ppm H2O2 showed promising results. This is the first report of A. ocellatum infestation in milkfish and mangrove red snapper in the Philippines.