Now showing items 1-20 of 56

    • Conference paper

      Abalone aquaculture for stock enhancement and community livelihood project in northern Palawan, Philippines 

      BJ Gonzales - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      One of the interventions to feed the poorest of the poor fisheries sector in the country is the provision of livelihood in the form of mariculture of high value marine species. In the Philippines, livelihood in rural areas is largely linked to resource depletion, hence it is wise not only to provide livelihood to the community but also to encourage them to conserve and enhance the resources. As part of the revised R&D program, the Western Philippines University partnered with NGO and existing projects to embark on a community-based environment-concerned livelihood project, using hatchery bred abalone, although top shell was also considered for stock enhancement. This is in an on-going project thus, preliminary phases such as abalone production and cage-based grow-out as well as subsequent project plans will be discussed. The objectives of this study were to: (a) share the implementing experiences in this project, (b) identify success and failure drivers of the project, (c) explain the conceptual framework for the MPA-based stock enhancement to be used in this project, and (d) give recommendations to improve the implementation and ensure the success of the project.

      The following activities have thus far been conducted: (a) development of criteria for cage micro-site selection; (b) writing of proposal and provision of financial assistance for hatchery juvenile production through a partnership MOA; (c) presentation of site survey results to beneficiaries and stake holders; (d) conduct of trainings on abalone grow out culture to POs; (e) development and improvement of training module; (f) signing of conservation agreement; (g) giving of cage materials and juveniles to people s organizations; (h) on site coaching; and (i) partial monitoring. The next activities include improvement in juvenile production, conduct of researches on abalone nutrition, and development of market and value chain flow analysis. The conceptual framework for community-managed stock enhancement will follow that of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources-ICRMP, of which the stock enhancement project is anchored on the management of marine protected areas or MPAs.

      The steps in all the activities were documented and while the project was in progress, performance of the participants in training were measured, the training module was improved, the training approaches were revised according to needs, and the growth and survival of juvenile abalone were monitored. The problems identified were low production of juveniles, insufficient food for grow-out, political squabbles, social preparation, and delay in implementation schedule. Recommendations to improve or resolve the problems encountered were also presented in this paper.
    • Conference paper

      Application of the United States Soybean Export Council program's soy-optimized floating feeds and low volume, high density cage aquaculture technologies 

      LLL Manalac, M Cremer & HP Lan - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The United States Soybean Export Council s (USSEC) Soy-In-Aquaculture (SIA) project in the Philippines introduced the Low Volume High Density (LVHD) cage culture production methodology in 2003. The aim of this technology is to maximize farmers profit, improve productivity, reduce feed conversion ratios (FCR) and limit environmental degradation. The Philippine fish farmers were very conservative and hesitant about adopting the USSEC SIA Low Volume High Density (LVHD) cage culture technology, particularly the new feeding techniques using extruded floating feeds. This conservative attitude was highlighted with different projects using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), milkfish (Chanos chanos) and snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) in USSEC SIA LVHD cage feeding demonstrations conducted in different commercial farms in the Philippines.
    • Conference paper

      Assessment of humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), spawning aggregations and declaration of marine protected area as strategy for enhancement of wild stocks 

      FG Romero & AS Injaki - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Humphead wrasse, known as the Napoleon fish (Cheilinus undulatus), is the largest living member of the family Labridae. It is slow growing but can grow to a maximum size exceeding 2 m and 190 kg. This species was the first commercially important coral reef food fish to be listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix II in 2004 because of its vulnerable status and the ongoing threat to its conservation from international trade. Like many coral reef fishes, the humphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus, aggregate in reef areas when they spawn and this spawning behaviour makes them highly vulnerable to overfishing. Assessment of the spawning aggregations of this species was conducted in the municipalities of Sibutu and Sitangkai in the province of Tawi-Tawi, Philippines. Key informant interviews (KII) with fishermen, mariculturists, and other stakeholders and focus group discussions (FGD) with local government leaders, Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management (FARMC) members, mariculturists, and exporters were conducted. Guided by the results of these KII and FGDs, underwater visual census of mameng (local common name for Napoleon wrasse) populations (juvenile and mature) were conducted to document spawning aggregation sites. Since there was no photo-documentation of actual spawning aggregations of mameng in the reef areas, indirect measures were used. Result of the KII and FGD indicated that the Baligtang Reef in Sipangkot and Tando Owak are major sources of spawners. Anecdotal accounts of Bajau fishermen showed that Dungun Dungon, Baligtang reef, Tando Owak and Tugalan are traditional fishing grounds for mameng spawning aggregations. From the length-frequency analysis of mameng caught by hook and line and fish pot in the Baligtang Reef in Sipangkot, the estimated length at maturity of this species was found to be 25-35 cm. There were 134 individuals caught within this size range so they are considered potential spawners. Another indirect proof used was the underwater documentation of juvenile humphead wrasse which were regularly observed and photographed in association with seagrass beds and branching coral reefs in Baligtang Reef in Sipangkot, Sitangkai. Gonadal study also indicated that the mameng caught in this area had mature and ripe gonads but the number of mature fish depends on the season. These were the basis of declaring Spawning Aggregation Sites in Tando Owak and Dungun Dungun in Sibutu and Baligtang Reef, Sipangkot and Tugalan in Sitangkai. These were declared as marine protected areas by ordinance of the municipal Sangguniang Bayan of the two municipalities. Management and enforcement plans have been developed and Bantay Dagat have been trained to protect the spawning aggregations and this strategy aims to protect the wild stocks of humphead wrasse. Protecting the spawners would ensure that there would be enough recruits, prevent recruitment overfishing and enhance the wild stocks.
    • Conference paper

      BFAR-CHED Philippine National Aquasilviculture Program (PNAP) in Bataan 

      RC Flores, FE Tungol, AS Antonio, ED Medairos & JM Salas - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Under the Philippine Aquasilviculture Program, the Bataan Peninsula State University (BSPU) rehabilitated denuded mangrove resources, established aquasilviculture technology demonstration projects as a livelihood option for fisherfolks (while caring for the mangroves they had planted) and established community-based multi-species hatcheries to increase endemic fish species in the area.

      The BPSU was able to (a) plant 183, 300 mangrove seedlings where 85.96% survival was noted a year after, (b) establish 16 units aquasilviculture projects for the livelihood of the beneficiaries (planting that earned the beneficiaries P1,338, 731.90); and (c) establish community-based multispecies hatcheries that already produced an estimated 1,030,502,400 eggs of various fish species, thus increasing the wild fishery resource in the area.

      The program is expected to bear potential impacts on our environment and to the lives of the marginalized people of our community through the collaborative efforts of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR), the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), BPSU, Local Government Units (LGUs) and the fisherfolks.
    • Conference paper

      Community-based shrimp stock enhancement for coastal socio-ecological restoration in the Philippines 

      J Altamirano, H Kurokura, ND Salayo, D Baticados, JG Suyo & S Ishikawa - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The reality of declining quality of coastal areas has been evident for many developing countries, especially in Southeast Asia. In the Philippines, rural coastal zones and estuaries are now being characterized by declining wild fisheries resources and degrading environment. This paper presents, as an example, the typical rural coastal towns of New Washington and Batan in Aklan province, Philippines and showcases how the concept of shrimp stock enhancement can provide incentives to restore the environment and provide sustainable fishing livelihood in the area.

      The New Washington-Batan Estuary in northeast Panay Island, Philippines was a productive fishing ground that has been in a state of degenerating brackishwater fisheries and estuarine environment. Average daily catch composed of various species decreased from 24 kg in 1970s to 0.7 kg at present. Shrimp fisheries, the most important livelihood, declined in quality and quantity. The highly-priced and once very abundant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon was replaced with smaller-sized and lower-priced species like the Metapenaeus ensis. These can be attributed to the conversion of 76% of mangroves to culture ponds in the past 50 years and more than 400% increase in fishing gears since the 1990s. The need to reduce fishing structures and rehabilitate mangroves is evident. However, these drastic changes directly affect fishers livelihood. This paper explores the prospects of P. monodon stock enhancement as positive reinforcement for the estuary s rehabilitation. Number of gears per fisher may have to be reduced but shrimp catches will be relatively high-priced. Simulations with additional tiger shrimp caught due to stock enhancement show that fishers can increase income by more than 4 times from their current PhP 34 gear-1 day-1. Campaigns on the importance of mangrove especially as shrimp habitat can encourage local communities to reforest the estuary especially in abandoned ponds. With effective management, law enforcement, and sustained support from different sectors, shrimp stock enhancement can be a positive strategy in estuarine rehabilitation and livelihood sustainability in the New Washington-Batan Estuary.
    • Conference paper

      Country status on sustainable aquaculture in Lao PDR 

      T Khonglaliane - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Capture fisheries and aquaculture in Lao PDR are based on water resource ecosystems which consist mainly of rivers and streams, hydropower and irrigation reservoirs, diversion weirs, small water bodies, flood plains and wet-season rice-fields. The total area of water resources for capture fisheries is believed to be more than 1.2 million ha. The estimated consumption of inland fish in Lao PDR is approximately 167,922 tonnes per year while consumption of other aquatic animals is estimated at 40,581 tonnes per year. Most of the consumption is from internal production (i.e. imports are of minor importance), so these figures represent approximate catches or yield from fisheries. These estimated yields are conservatively valued at almost US$150 million per year.

      The people of Lao PDR, especially in the rural communities that account for more than 75 per cent of the population, still depend upon the country's fish and other aquatic animals as their most reliable sources of animal protein. The estimate of actual fish consumption per capita (kg/capita/ year) of inland fish is 24.5 kg, while other aquatic animals account for about 4.1 kg and marine products around 0.4 kg, to make a total of 29 kg of fish and aquatic products consumed per capita per year.

      As aquaculture in Lao PDR expands, many forms of production systems are being developed, for example pond culture, communal ponds, rice-cum-fish culture and cage culture. Most fish culture systems in Lao PDR are small-scale. Such forms of production systems are divided into sub-categories depending on the nature and main activity of the producers. According to the Department of Livestock and Fisheries, aquaculture production in 2007 accounted for 54,750 tonnes in an area of more than 42,000 ha, including cage culture in the Mekong and some tributaries.

      There has been a significant increase in intensive tilapia production in recent years in Lao PDR (MRC Technical Paper No. 5 April 2002) based on tilapia cage culture in the Mekong river and irrigation reservoirs. In last two years, an enterprising farmer has established about 360 cages.

      Constraints in the large-scale development of tilapia cage culture are the lack of technical support (e.g. extension services) to the farmers and insufficient supply of advanced fingerlings. Morever, tilapia cage culture in the Mekong river system is perceived to be difficult to sustain because of environmental factors such as river flooding and strong currents during the rainy season and the lack of water during the dry season.
    • Conference paper

      Current status of aquaculture in Singapore 

      NC Heng - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Singapore is a small country state with a demographic profile of over 5 million in population. With limited land for agricultural purposes and sea space available for fish farming, Singapore depends heavily on importation of fresh seafood. Even so, Singapore has a small but thriving and increasingly important food fish farming industry which accounts for about 6% of local food fish consumption.

      The main bulk of local food fish production comes from coastal farming in floating netcages along the northern coast of Singapore. Popular species of marine food fish cultured include seabass, pompano, groupers, mullets and milkfish. There are also a few land-based fish farms culturing species like tilapia, marble goby and snakehead.

      The ornamental fish farming industry is concentrated mainly in Agrotechnology Parks and there are about 75 fish farms producing ornamental fishes with an approximate value of $76.7 million that is exported to over 80 countries.

      The Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority of Singapore (AVA) is the national authority for aquaculture development in Singapore and manages aquaculture farms through the issuance of fish farming licenses. For marine food fish farms, the farm licensee has to abide by good farm management guidelines to maintain the farm in good condition and ensure that the farm does not engage in activities that would impact the farming environment. For land-based farms, there are also guidelines that address infrastructure layout, farming system and water treatment facilities. The latter requires that sedimentation ponds, reservoir ponds/tanks, supply/drainage systems and trade effluent treatment plant are included in the farm set-up.

      There are several challenges and issues faced by the aquaculture industry in Singapore. One of these is the consistent supply of good quality fish fry as farmers have to source for fish fry from overseas sources that may not be consistent or readily available.

      Issues of fish health and farm management are other challenges faced by our fish farms. These factors affect farm productivity and the sustainability of farming operations.

      The AVA has established the Marine Aquaculture Centre (MAC) on St John's Island to address the needs of aquaculture development for Singapore through development of fish reproduction and seed production as well as large-scale fish farming technology. At present, the fish reproduction technology research work involves closing the reproductive cycles of key marine food fish species and also fry production at a commercial scale level. Closing the reproductive cycle will help to reduce the reliance on imported fry. Good quality brooders are selected, maintained and bred to produce quality fry, which would translate to better growth performance and shorter culture period. This, together with good farm management practices, will optimize the usage of fish feeds during the culture cycle.

      To fill the gap in production and supply of good quality fish seeds for local fish farms, AVA shares information on hatchery technology development with local commercial hatcheries.

      The AVA collaborates with research institutes and local fish farms in the development of vaccines to boost the survival rate of fish fry and fingerlings. This will improve survivability, thus increase the production of the farms and reduce the reliance on prophylactic drugs that may have negative consequences from prolonged use.

      The AVA also renders technical assistance to the farmers to formulate viable production plans to improve production. By leveraging on the use of technology and good farm practices, such as implementation of fish health, fish nutrition and feeding protocols, it is possible to reduce production costs and improve productivity. The introduction of the Good Aquaculture Practice scheme for food fish farming will help improve the standards of the local aquaculture industry and sustainability through responsible management practices.
    • Conference paper

      Current status of sustainable aquaculture in Cambodia 

      O Lang - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      In Cambodia, the extension of technologies in fish aquaculture is a vital activity that contributes to improving the daily livelihood of the rural poor farmer communities. Technology extension was introduced since 1994 through a project of the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) and other local non-government organizations (NGOs) or international organizations (IOs) in some fish production deficient provinces. Prior to the introduction of such activities, wild fish were still abundant. From then to date, aquaculture extension is being done under the Freshwater Aquaculture Improvement and Extension Project Phase II of Japan International Cooperation Agency (FAIEXII-JICA), and Department for International Development/Danish International Development Agency (DFID/DANIDA) Projects.

      Recently, aquaculture extension is one of the national policies under the National Rectangular Strategy Policies of the Government. There are several different freshwater aquaculture systems including floating cage/pen culture, earthen pond culture and rice-fish culture, and other fish culture in smallwater bodies or aquaculture-based fisheries in Cambodia as practiced in over 20 provinces and cities, with less development focused on coastal aquaculture.

      Freshwater aquaculture production continued to grow over the past two decades and increased from 1,610 tons in 1984 to 20,760 tons in 2004, representing 11.9 times increase or growth of 16.3% per year This further increased to 74,000 tons in 2012, representing 11.9 times increase or a growth rate of 15% per year. However, aquaculture development in Cambodia is in its infancy stage compared to other countries in the region. It has encountered some problems and constraints during its development, which include inadequate and unreliable supply of good quality seed; lack of capital, fund or credit for aquaculture investment; inadequate knowledge of aquaculture technology; inadequate manpower for aquaculture extension service; and climate change, which have adversely impacted aquaculture development in Cambodia.

      In order to achieve the goal of supplying the nation s future fishery requirements through aquaculture, the Cambodia Fisheries Administration (FiA) published the Strategic Planning Framework (SPF) for Fisheries (2010-2019). Within this framework, the scenarios for future fish demand-supply for 2019 suggest that aquaculture production will increase by 15% per year to 185,000 tons by the end of 2019.
    • Conference paper

      Development of a simple, rapid, cost-effective diagnostic kit for WSSV 

      PMT Arabit, ADD Nicolasora, PEZ Go, CMA Caipang & MBB Maningas - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Shrimp aquaculture is one of the most important sources of income and livelihood in the Philippines. For the past two decades, the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has adversely affected the production of the Philippine shrimp industry resulting to losses in revenue. Shrimps infected by the virus experience up to 100% mortality, 3 to 10 days post-infection. One way of controlling the disease is early detection, which remains to be too complicated and inaccessible to shrimp farmers. Being a DNA virus, the first step to WSSV diagnosis is the isolation of high-quality DNA suitable for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Using readily available and affordable reagents, a DNA extraction protocol has been especially developed for rapid WSSV-detection; DNA has been successfully extracted from the pleopods of shrimps and the results were comparable with that of commercially available kits from Promega and Zymoresearch. LAMP has been optimized for WSSV detection in the temperature range of 55°C to 68°C and was shown to be faster and ten times more sensitive than conventional PCR. This study together with a locally fabricated machine, offers a more convenient, practical and efficient way of detecting WSSV, with the advantage of using non-invasive means of obtaining shrimp tissue therefore not losing any shrimp meat in the process.
    • Conference paper

      Distribution and abundance of hard clam shells Meretrix meretrix along the coastal areas of Panguil bay, Lanao del Norte, Philippines 

      CQ Jumawan, RB Palma & RO Sia - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Meretrix meretrix is believed to be abundant in Panguil Bay and in the absence of relevant fishery statistics, it is useful to quantify their biomass with a view to determining their fishery potential. This study aims to monitor the gonadal development, identify the associated macrofauna and determine the distribution and abundance of hard clam shells M. meretrix along the coastline of four municipalities of Lanao del Norte at Panguil Bay. Four sampling sites were selected and established to achieve and relate some generalities using the transect-quadrat method. Clams were counted, measured and identified. Physicochemical parameters were also noted every sampling. M. meretrix was found to be most abundant in Raw-an Pt. Baroy (28-542 pcs./m2) followed by Mayao, Lala (0.3-26 pcs/m2). M. meretrix at Aloha Tubod occurred in low densities (0.1-4 pcs/m2). No hard clam shell was found in Taguitic, Kapatagan. Mean length differed significantly at the three locations. The coastal area of Mayao, Lala, had the highest diversity (H' = 4.236737) in terms of shell species identified and recorded during the twelve months sampling period. Most of the shells dissected were sexually immature with male shellfishes being more predominant than females. Differences in distribution, density and length size of hard clam shells were compared in this study at four locations. Anthropogenic causes e.g. exploitation as well as environmental parameters such as salinity levels and sediment quality are suggested to be the main cause of the variation. These results will be used as baseline information to properly manage hard clam shell resources in Panguil Bay.
    • Conference paper

      Estimation of energy budget of sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra, in integrated multi-trophic aquaculture 

      S Watanabe, M Kodama, ZGA Orozco, JG Sumbing, SRM Novilla & MJH Lebata-Ramos - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Continuous intensification of aquaculture production has brought about environmental issues associated with eutrophication worldwide. Environmental deterioration such as hypoxia and sulfide production due to water and sediment eutrophication originating from aquaculture effluents have been problematic, resulting to sporadic disease outbreaks and fish kills in the Philippines.

      Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) is one of the promising methods for sustainable aquaculture as it also provides a supplementary source of income to the fish farmers. IMTA is a polyculture system that integrates culturing of fed species (e.g. finfish) the main commodity, organic extractive species (e.g. deposit and filter feeding benthos) and inorganic extractive species (e.g. seaweed). In this study, IMTA techniques were established for small-scale coastal fish farmers in the Philippines, with sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra, commonly known as sandfish), as the key species. Sandfish commands the highest price in tropical sea cucumber species.

      Nitrogen (N) budget of sandfish in polyculture with milkfish (Chanos chanos) and Elkhorn sea moss (Kappaphycus alvarezii), both of which are commonly cultured in the Philippines, was estimated using a simple closed box model.

      Information on stocking density, stocking size, mortality, growth, feed ration, feed assimilation, NH4-N production and NH4-N absorption of these species was obtained from a series of experiments and existing literature. Culture conditions were as follows: 26 g milkfish were cultured in a 5 x 5 x 4 m cage at an average stocking density of 36.7 ind/m3 (i.e. usual practice in the Philippines) with an initial feeding ration of 10% of body weight which was gradually decreased to 4% over time; 10 g sandfish were cultured in a 5 x 5 x 0.3 m cage hung under the milkfish cage to trap particulate N waste (i.e. feces and leftover feed) from milkfish culture at a stocking density of 35 ind/m2; the stocking weight of Elkhorn sea moss line culture was 10 kg. The culture period was 200 days.

      It was estimated that milkfish culture under the above-mentioned schemes cumulatively produced 145 kg of particulate N, and milkfish and sandfish together excreted 60 kg of NH4-N in 200 days of culture. Daily assimilation rate of the particulate N by sandfish ranged from 3.4 to 12.4%, and 6.4% of the particulate N was estimated to be removed by sandfish during the entire 200 days of culture. Daily absorption rate of NH4-N by Elkhorn sea moss increased exponentially with time and reached 100% at 125 days of culture. Cumulative NH4-N from milkfish and sandfish excretion was estimated to be depleted by 162 days of culture.

      For complete utilization of particulate N by sandfish by the end of milkfish culture period (i.e. zero emission), sandfish stocking density should be 805 ind/m2, which is 200 times as high as that in existing sandfish aquaculture operations in countries such as Viet Nam and New Caledonia. The purpose of sandfish culture in IMTA should be emphasized in terms of its economic advantages and not very much on environmental integrity. Cages for sandfish culture should be designed in such a way where only a small fraction of organic matter from milkfish culture (i.e. about 6% in this culture scheme) enters it to avoid sediment quality deterioration and possible death of sandfish. Elkhorn sea moss on the other hand seems very efficient in bioremediation capability.
    • Conference paper

      Feed formulation for sustainable aquaculture 

      RM Coloso - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      As aquaculture production of tropical fish and crustacean species becomes more intensified, practical diets need to be formulated to be cost effective and environment-friendly. Ingredients should be included to satisfy the nutrient requirements of the animal, promote optimal fish growth, and boost the income of small-scale farmers and commercial producers with minimal impacts to the surrounding environment. Feed formulation for sustainable aquaculture should aim at increasing aquaculture system performance and profitability, enhancing the animals disease resistance, increasing attractability, palatability, and digestibility of practical diets, and maintaining environmental quality through sound feeding management and good aquaculture practices. More vigorous research and development efforts need to be supported to generate feed technologies that will ensure a steady and reliable supply of safe and high quality aquaculture products to the public while preserving the environment.
    • Conference paper

      First record of Laem-Singh virus in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in the Philippines 

      CAM Cruz, PC dela Cruz, PCD Alcala, FGM Tagle, ES Santos, MD Santos & MBB Maningas - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Laem-Singh Virus (LSNV), a single-stranded RNA virus that causes growth retardation in Penaeus monodon, is also known as Monodon Slow-Growth Syndrome (MSGS) virus. Black Tiger shrimps afflicted with this virus exhibit unusual dark color, a weight gain of less than 0.1 g in 1 to 2 weeks, unusual yellow markings, bamboo-shaped abdominal markings and brittle antennae. It was first detected in Thailand and the virus quickly spread to neighboring Asian countries such as Malaysia and Singapore. The shrimp economy of countries where infections have occurred experienced losses in the export of live shrimps and broodstocks. An earlier study in 2009 reported that LSNV was not present in the Philippines. However, since no follow-up researches were done in the succeeding years, this study was conducted to detect the presence of virus in selected sites of Luzon. Results based on biased sampling method and RT-PCR data indicated that LSNV is indeed present in the country. This is further supported by DNA sequence data, showing 100% identity with LSNV India isolate. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Philippine isolate clustered closely with other LSNV isolates. The outcome of this study might have implications in the current practices in the Philippine shrimp aquaculture industry.
    • Conference paper

      Good aquaculture practices (GAqP): setting directions for harmonized regional standards - the Philippine experience 

      MF Matubang & NA Lopez - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      A milestone process on how Good Aquaculture Practices (GAqP) emanates in Philippine aquaculture and its integration to the ASEAN harmonized standardization efforts is discussed in the paper. The management model, value chain and draft Philippine National Standard of the GAqP code are presented and evaluated as to its impact to trade and marketing, socioeconomic considerations, food safety and technology.
    • Conference paper

      Good aquaculture practices (VietGAP) and sustainable aquaculture development in Viet Nam 

      TBT Nguyen - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The shrimp (black tiger and white leg shrimp) and catfish industries in Viet Nam continue to experience increasing growth due to rapid aquaculture development. However, disease outbreaks become a major issue. Moreover, seafood consumers at present are likely to be more concerned about how the products are produced and how to control/manage aquatic animal health instead of treatment. Hence, the main objective of this abstract is to focus on one of the solutions to address these problems/issues and ensure sustainable aquaculture development in Viet Nam.
    • Conference paper

      Growth and survival of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles fed diets with varying levels of irradiated chitosan 

      K Gonzales, MN Corpuz & MRR Romana-Eguia - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Chitin is a natural biopolymer and the second most abundant after cellulose. Chitosan, a derivative of chitin which is soluble in acidic aqueous media, is used in many applications like food, cosmetics, biomedical and pharmaceutical products. It is used in agriculture for enhancing growth in crops while in aquaculture, chitosan is believed to improve the immune response of fish to stress-inducing agents, thus enhancing survival and possibly growth. This preliminary study was conducted to investigate the effects of various concentrations of irradiated chitosan on the growth performance of Nile tilapia, O. niloticus. Fish was fed with a control diet and three formulated diets containing increasing levels of irradiated chitosan (10g, 20g and 50g kg-1). Juvenile O. niloticus was fed once daily for 21 days. The ration was based on 5% of the fish biomass. Tilapia fingerlings (n=30 per tank) of uniform size were randomly distributed in four experimental groups each with three replicates following a completely randomized design. Growth and food utilization parameters were measured. Specific growth rate (SGR), mean weight gain (MWG), mean length increment (MLI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were computed and analyzed using ANCOVA. Results from the feeding trials showed no significant difference (P>0.05) in the different performance parameters under the different fish feed treatments. MWG, MLG, SGR and FCR varied in the stocks fed different fish feed treatments but with no significant differences. The results also showed 45-62% survival ratio. These suggest that although there is no significant difference between treatments and control, irradiated chitosan-supplemented diets do not retard the growth of O. niloticus. Chitosan should be studied further to determine how it can improve the growth performance, feed utilization and immune response of Nile tilapia.
    • Conference paper

      Growth performance of brackishwater enhanced selected tilapia (BEST) reared in brackishwater ponds 

      AV Labastida, CQ Jumawan, AA Abogado, RB Palma & JJ Sabillo - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Tilapia culture contributes greatly to world aquaculture production. Several tilapia strains have been developed locally and one of these has been developed for brackishwater aquaculture. BEST or the Brackishwater Enhanced Selected Tilapia was developed by the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources with the aim of promoting brackishwater culture of this commodity to further improve tilapia production in the Philippines. This study will determine the growth performance of BEST reared in organically fertilized brackishwater ponds at three different stocking densities.

      The study was conducted in nine (9) units of 200m2 ponds. Pond preparation was done following standard procedures that include drying, liming, teaseed application and fertilization. Stocking was done after twenty days when primary productivity in the ponds was noted. Three culture systems were used, namely: extensive (Treatment 1 or T1), semiintensive (Treatment 2 or T2) and intensive (Treatment 3 or T3) systems. The study was conducted for 120 days. Results showed that fish in ponds in treatment T1 had an average body weight (ABW) of 52.1g, T2 stocks with ABW of 223.1 g and T3 stocks with an ABW of 214.5 g. Meanwhile, T1 stocks had a survival rate of 91.9% while stocks under T2 and T3 had survival rates of 80 % and 84% respectively. T1 results showed losses amounting to P382 since total revenue of P958 is smaller than total cost of P1,340. T2 harvest on the other hand registered a total revenue of P 10,368 and total cost of P 4,375 hence net return of P 5,634. T3 also had total revenue of P 21,419 with a total cost of over P 8,498 giving a net return of P12, 471. T2 showed a return on investment (ROI) of 128% and a payback period of 0.77 year. T3 had an ROI of 139% and payback period of 0.71 year. Average feed conversion ratio (FCR) in two runs for two treatments are the same at 1.1 Water parameters like DO, salinity, temperature; water level and pH were also taken. Water level in the ponds ranged from 70 to 74 cm, salinity at 6.3-6.9 ppt, DO at 1.5-1.7ppm, temperature at a constant 29°C, monthly pH ranges were from 7.1 to 8.0 and transparency of 34-47 cm.
    • Conference paper

      Hatchery management techniques for tiger-tail seahorse (Hippocampus comes) 

      SMB Ursua & T Azuma - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Seahorse culture has been practiced throughout the world to meet the demand for global trade and reduce the pressure on wild stocks through overexploitation. Development of culture techniques for seed production of seahorses is one of the most effective measures to avoid such anthropological repercussions on the wild stocks, and is currently being conducted at SEAFDEC/ AQD with the aim to produce seed for stock release to protect these internationally threatened and overexploited species in Southeast Asia. This paper describes the breakthroughs in seahorse breeding and nursery rearing. So far, we have developed water and feeding management schemes that resulted in improved reproductive performance of broodstock and higher survival and growth rates in newborn and juvenile seahorses.

      We highlight the concern of providing desirable food organisms and maintenance of suitable water quality in order to maintain maximum efficiency in the management of the seahorse hatchery. Newborn seahorses fed with formalin-treated food organisms and reared in UV-treated seawater had significantly higher survival and daily growth rate based on stretched height and body weight than those fed with untreated food organisms and reared in both chlorinated and sand-filtered seawater. Broodstocks fed with mysid shrimps showed higher brood size and shorter parturition interval. Thus, improved reproductive performance as well as survival and growth of newborn seahorses were largely influenced by refinement of hatchery management techniques.
    • Conference paper

      Induced breeding of giant trevally, maliputo (Caranx ignobilis) 

      MTM Mutia, FB Muyot & ML Magistrado - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The giant trevally, maliputo (Caranx ignobilis), a highly prized and most popular indigenous migratory fish in Taal Lake, Batangas, Philippines, was induced to spawn using various hormones (to assess hormone efficacy on spawning performance). Different feeding regimes used in the larval rearing of this species were also evaluated. Sexually mature breeders, 5 to 7 years old with at least 0.5 mm oocyte diameter and 60% of ova at GVM stage were injected intramuscularly, in two doses, with: (a) 1,000 IU/kg BW human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG); (b) 100 µg/kg BW luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa); and (c) 5 mg/kg BW carp pituitary extract (CPE), at five breeders per hormone treatment. Uninjected fish served as the control. Treated fish were released and allowed to spawn spontaneously in 40-ton (5m diameter) circular tanks.

      Successful spawning was achieved during the months of March to July (28-30 ppt salinity; 27.6-29.25°C). Maliputo eggs are pelagic, clear and spherical, with a single oil globule and mean diameter of 0.8 mm. Ovulation period was 24-36.5 hours after 2nd injection in HCG-treated fish and 25-52 hours for LHRHa-injected fish. Only one of the CPE-treated fish spawned after 27 hours but eggs were not fertilized. Uninjected control fish did not spawn. Eggs were hatched in 11-13 hours in HCG treatment and 11-17 hours in LHRHa. Mean number of spawned eggs (3,500-4,000 eggs•gram-1) was higher in HCG treatment (223,068 eggs•kg-1 breeder at 58.27g•kg-1 breeder) than LHRHa (176,524 eggs•kg-1 breeder at 50.44 g•kg-1 breeder). Fertilization and hatching rates were both higher in LHRHa (60.88% and 71.07%, respectively), than HCG treatment (30.53% and 43.06%). Mean number of produced larvae was higher in LHRHa treatment (56,040 larvae•kg-1 breeder) compared to HCG-treated fish (41,547 larvae•kg-1 breeder).

      Hatched larvae (1.6 mm mean length) reared for 30 days in 3m x 3m concrete tanks using the standard protocol for marine finfish hatchery attained a maximum survival of 4.47%. Complete metamorphosis was observed after 26-28 days (8.1 mm mean length). Successful larval rearing was attained using greenwater (Nannochloropsis sp.) technology fed with live food (Brachionus sp. and Artemia salina). Critical periods were days 1-7 and days 19-22 when heavy mortalities were observed.

      Being the first recorded spawning in captivity of Caranx ignobilis in the Philippines, the results of this study provides an important baseline data and is a major step towards the development of a hatchery technology for maliputo in the country as well as for seed enhancement of its natural habitat. The project has provided 400,000 maliputo larvae to private hatcheries for larval rearing trials while 100,000 larvae were seeded in Balayan Bay and 5,000 fingerlings released in Taal Lake.
    • Conference paper

      Inland fisheries resource enhancement and conservation practices in Myanmar 

      H Thein - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Myanmar has impressive freshwater capture fisheries. Inland freshwater bodies cover 8.1 million ha of which 1.3 million ha are permanent while the rest are seasonally inundated floodplains. There are repeated references to the crucial importance of fish and fish products in the nutrition of the Myanmar people. Over the past few decades, inland fisheries resources have increased pressure from overfishing, use of destructive fishing gear/methods, pollution and environment changes. In order to make a sustainable inland capture fisheries and conservation of aquatic biodiversity as well as nutritional security and improved rural livelihoods, fisheries resource enhancement and conservation measures have long been adopted in Myanmar since 1967, initiated through a seed replenishment program in natural waters, such rivers, lake, dams, even rice fields, etc. However, the institutional, policy, legislative and financial environments under which enhancement and capture fisheries regimes exist are not conducive to the interests of the fishers. Strong tools for valuation of ecosystem goods and services, enabling governance arrangements and estimation of environmental flows are needed. Fishing communities need to be organized into strong co-management/participatory/community regimes in order to ensure that all stakeholders take part in decision-making process and the benefits accrued are shared equitably by all.