A preliminary study on the diagnosis of coral reef healthiness and establishment of coral replenishment technology
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Field surveys for coral reef through line-intercept-transect (LIT) and temperature profiling using data-loggers were done at three layers of 5, 10, and 15 m depths in coral reef areas, Nogas Island, Anini-y, Antique, Philippines. Preliminary data based on the LIT survey showed that both coverages of substrates by any type of organism and by Scleractinia decreased in the deeper layers. For Scleractinia, Porites sp. occurred predominantly in all the depth layers with the occurrence decreasing with depth. Temperature fluctuation was largest in the 5 m depth layer, where effects of tidal level were also confirmed. While the average temperature decreased with depth, this did not differ beyond 1°C between 5 and 15 m layers during November 2012 to March 2013. Fragments of the Porites sp. and Acropora sp. were sampled and transferred to aquaria at the Tigbauan Main Station of SEAFDEC/AQD. Acropora sp. sampled from the deepest layer alone showed bleaching and thereafter, a part of the fragments regained the color. Experimental trials to clarify the effects of ocean acidification and warming on the health of the coral using the live fragments of Porites sp. showed decreasing trends in both photosynthetic rates and daily growth rates in acidic condition (pH = 7.6), while decrease of zooxanthellae density was observed under warmer conditions (31°C ) for one month. A new methodology for the determination of density of zooxanthellae was established using the fragments of Porites sp. In this study, the need for studies on several coral communities as well as further basic research on coral biology, particularly, responses to the changing environments are discussed for diagnosis of coral reef healthiness and establishment of effective coral replenishment technology.
Azuma, T., Tan, J. J. R., Zarate, J., Altamirano, J., Gatus, J., & Sotto, F. (2015). A preliminary study on the diagnosis of coral reef healthiness and establishment of coral replenishment technology. In M. R. R. Romana-Eguia, F. D. Parado-Estepa, N. D. Salayo, & M. J. H. Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production of Aquatic Species: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA) (p. 335). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Community-based coral farming for reef rehabilitation, biodiversity conservation and as a livelihood option for fisherfolk T Heeger, FB Sotto, JL Gatus & C Laron - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture DepartmentThe present condition of marine resources in the Philippines is critical and a majority of coastal communities live below the poverty line. If it continues, the progressive degradation of coral reefs and overexploitation poses a dangerous trend. Coastal resource management strategies are facing a new challenge: the integration of social, economic and natural sciences in future concepts to reverse the current status of ecosystem destruction and improvement of the people s living conditions. Hence, the primary objective of the coral farm is to provide alternative livelihood to fisher families from their resources on a sustained basis. The second objective is the rehabilitation of degraded reefs. Currently coral colonies of 64 species are taken through fragmentation from the wild. After 6-12 weeks (depending on the species) of grow-out in the farm, the fragments were deployed at the rehabilitation site at an average of 2 fragments per square meter (=12.5% cover). The survival of fragments is high at 84%, despite the fact that some coral colonies were placed in unsuitable substrates by the fisherfolk. More trainings have to be conducted improve their knowledge of coral biology and community structure. The net cost of rehabilitating a one-hectare reef is U$2,100 for 12.5% cover. Additional profit from coral marketing is used for community projects identified by the folk. In this case, coral farming may be an option for livelihood and a cost-effective tool for reef rehabilitation.
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UPV Journal of Natural Sciences, 2006 - University of the Philippines in the VisayasAn assessment of the extensive fringing reefs surrounding Mararison lsland, Culasi, Antique was undertaken in 1994 to 1996 and in 1998 to provide scientific basis for management and enhancement of the island s resources as part of the Community Fisheries Resource Management project launched in 1991. The fringing reefs on the northwest side of the island are characterized by high percent coral cover (53-65%) consisting of very diverse coral species. The dominant forms are branching non-Acropora,with numerous small colonies of other coral forms. In contrast, the southeast side of the island fronting the fishing village is depau perate (4.7 -17.6% coral cover) with few small colonies of encrusting and massive corals characteristic of stressed reefs. However, highest coral cover consisting of dense stands of branching Acropora interspersed with branching non-Acropora was observed along the reef slope of Nablag station located at the western end of the island. Coral cover in the offshore reef (Guiob) was relatively fair (24%-46%). A total of 166 scleractinian corals were seen although only few species occurred frequently or provided high percent coral cover. Following the bleaching event of 1998, dramatic decreases (30%-61%) in live coral cover, particularly along the reef slopes, were observed in all stations.
Marine protected areas in the Philippines: The case of Malalison island in community-based management of reef fisheries LMB Garcia & JH Primavera - In Ecosystem Approach in Action in Biosphere Reserves of Southeast and East Asia with Thematic Exchange on Biosphere … Southeast Asian Biosphere Reserve Network (SeaBRnet), Phnom Penh & Siem Reap, Cambodia, 26 October - 1 November 2003, 2004 - UNESCO OfficeThe extensive Philippine coastline of more than 22,540 k m provides the natural habitat of a variety of flora and fauna that make the Philippine archipelago one of the centers of marine biodiversity in the world. Resource-use conflicts, overexploitation, and the pressure to feed the teeming population in many fishing communities have however degraded these habitats, seriously threatening marine biodiversity that supports the biological productivity of the country's coastal fishery. Encouraged by recent enabling national legislation (e.g., the Local Government Code of 1991, the National Integrated Protected Areas System Act of 1992, the Philippine Fisheries Code of 1998), grassroots advocacy in many municipalities has grown to address this threat, resulting in the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs), particularly in coral reef management. The over 550 MPA s catalogued in the Philippines to date were established primarily to enhance local fishery yields for artisanal fishers and secondarily to protect coastal habitats for biodiversity conservation and multiple economic uses. Enforcement in a majority of these MPAs is a serious problem however. Many government and donor-assisted projects, such as the UNESCO Biosphere Reserves in Puerto Galera and Palawan, have promoted integrated management of both upland and coastal habitats, but these too suffer from persistent conflicts in multiple resource-use and the lack of sustained enforcement by stakeholders. Our recent experience in Malalison Island, central Philippines describes the efforts of empowering the island fishers themselves to be effective and responsible managers of their marine resources. Grassroots empowerment required organizing the island fisherfolks in 1991 into a working association to promote collective action on a number of local reef fishery management initiatives, particularly the establishment of exclusive-use rights over the island's reef fishing grounds, which entailed influencing the municipal government and neighboring villages. Specific interventions that followed were highlighted by the establishment of a no-take marine reserve and the deployment of concrete artificial habitats in one of their fishing grounds in Gui-ob reef in 1995-1996. Indicators of equity, efficiency, and sustainability suggest that island fisherfolks have gained greater control over their reef fishery resources, allocated their fair share of access rights, and influenced the formulation of fishery co-management policies through direct participation. In the process of empowerment, the island community leaders and many members have become bold and confident in publicly articulating their vision of sustaining harvest from their reef fisheries, a trait that they have not openly displayed prior to 1991. The experience in Malalison Island has demonstrated that fishery co-management, as exemplified by sustained protection of a no-take marine reserve, can be an achievable goal in the Philippines. It may serve as a valuable model to be followed by other coastal fishing communities in Southeast Asia and elsewhere.