Fishery resource enhancement: An overview of the current situation and issues in the southeast Asian region
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The total global production from capture fisheries has plateaued since the mid 90s. This stagnation in production or reduced productivity of the world’s coastal and marine wild fisheries is caused by overfishing and degradation of habitats through coastal development and destructive fishing methods. Reports have shown that if the current fishing trends continue, all of the commercial fisheries will have collapsed by 2050. To boost production, scientists, fisheries managers, government agencies, and NGOs have been looking at ways of enhancing fish stocks. Replenishing depleted stocks may be done by regulating fishing effort, restoring degraded nursery and spawning habitats or through resource enhancement. Resource enhancement using individuals reared in aquaculture facilities or seed stocks abundant in the wild is becoming a popular method of supplementing depleted stocks. It is one of the many strategies that could help address the decreasing fisheries production in the wild. A brief history of resource enhancement, the aquatic species released in the different countries in the region, the reasons for releasing stocks, and the issues involved, are discussed briefly in this paper. Among the main reasons for resource enhancement are to increase production or enhance stocks and increase food supply and/or family income. Other reasons include protection of endemic and maintenance of endangered species, rehabilitation of degraded natural habitats and for recreation fisheries, among others. Age or size of seeds, seed quality, genetics, governance, economics, biodiversity conservation, politics, and the introduction of exotics are among the resource enhancement issues identified in the region.
Lebata-Ramos, M. J. H., & Doyola-Solis, E. F. (2016). Fishery resource enhancement: An overview of the current situation and issues in the southeast Asian region. In K. Hajime, T. Iwata, Y. Theparoonrat, N. Manajit, & V. T. Sulit (Eds.), Consolidating the Strategies for Fishery Resources Enhancement in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Symposium on Strategy for Fisheries Resources Enhancement in the Southeast Asian Region, Pattaya, Thailand, 27-30 July 2015 (pp. 124-128). Samutprakan, Thailand: Training Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
PublisherTraining Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Potential and prospects of southeast Asian eel resources for sustainable fisheries and aquaculture development The world demand for river eels has been increasing mainly because of the market expansion of some delicacies such as the kabayaki (broiled eel with sweet soy sauce) in East Asia. While most of the world’s eel production is derived from aquaculture, it should be noted that eel aquaculture is still dependent on the natural resources. As techniques for the full-life cycle aquaculture of eels have not yet been fully developed for commercial use, the eel aquaculture industry is still solely dependent on wild resources for seed stocks. However, the natural resources had been confronted with various factors that could possibly create negative impacts on the eel resources including habitat alteration, overexploitation, climate change, pollution, and incidence of diseases. Thus, concerns on the sustainability of various eel species in the world have increased in recent years. It should be reckoned that the European and American eels are already threatened to certain degree by pollution and damming (or the construction of dams that prevent their migration to freshwater bodies) leading to almost “close to collapse” of the European eel resources. This situation prompted CITES to list the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in CITES Appendix II in 2009 and accordingly, trade restrictions of the European eel and its products came into effect. In Southeast Asia, it is known that aquaculture and inland capture fisheries of eel are practiced but data and information on the total production of eel in the region remain very minimal. In this regard, the Southeast Asian countries have been encouraged to report their respective eel production to SEAFDEC in order that the status and trend of the region’s eel resources could be established and the statistics could be appropriately reflected in the Fishery Statistical Bulletin of Southeast Asia produced yearly by SEAFDEC. Meanwhile, in an effort to conserve the eel resources in Southeast Asia, SEAFDEC recently launched a project on Conservation, Management and Sustainable Utilization of Eel Resources in Southeast Asia with funding support from the Trust Fund for SEAFDEC of the Fisheries Agency of Japan.
Community-based stock enhancement of abalone, Haliotis asinina in Sagay marine reserve: Achievements, limitations and directions ND Salayo, RJG Castel, RT Barrido, DHM Tormon & T Azuma - In K Hajime, T Iwata, Y Theparoonrat, N Manajit & VT Sulit (Eds.), Consolidating the Strategies for Fishery Resources Enhancement in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Symposium … Strategy for Fisheries Resources Enhancement in the Southeast Asian Region, Pattaya, Thailand, 27-30 July 2015, 2016 - Training Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe Sagay Marine Reserve (SMR) under the National Integrated Protected Area System (NIPAS) is one of the many reef areas in the Visayan Sea in the central part of the Philippine archipelago. The SMR covers 32,000 ha or 59% of coastal waters north of the mainland Sagay City. Donkey’s ear abalone is one of the most sought mollusks traded by small-scale fishers in Molocaboc Island located within the SMR. High buying prices in local and international markets compared with other fish catch motivated fishers to target abalone and caused its overfishing. SEAFDEC/AQD, with support from the Government of Japan Trust Fund (JTF), conducted a community-based stock enhancement through a tri-party collaboration between the fisherfolks of Molocaboc Island, the Sagay local government at the village and city levels, and SEAFDEC/AQD. The study showed that the decision and implementation of stock enhancement and the definition of its objectives and relevance involves the strong engagement with stakeholders. For over a period of eight years (2007-2014), we learned that stock enhancement necessarily involve high financial investments and enormous transaction cost over a long period of time which are often not affordable to local governments of coastal communities in Southeast Asia. Thus, community-based collaborations may help achieve enhancement and restocking goals.
Conference paperJP Altamirano, N Salayo, H Kurokura, H Fushimi & S Ishikawa - In K Hajime, T Iwata, Y Theparoonrat, N Manajit & VT Sulit (Eds.), Consolidating the Strategies for Fishery Resources Enhancement in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Symposium … Strategy for Fisheries Resources Enhancement in the Southeast Asian Region, Pattaya, Thailand, 27-30 July 2015, 2016 - Training Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterIn central Philippines, the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD), with strong collaboration and support from the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN) of Kyoto, Japan, has been looking into the stock enhancement of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in the New Washington Estuary (NWE), province of Aklan, central Philippines. The NWE was a productive fishing ground that has been suffering from degenerating brackishwater fisheries and estuarine environment. Average daily catch declined from 24 kg in 1970s to only 0.7 kg at present. Shrimp fisheries, the most important livelihood, declined in quality and quantity. Tiger shrimps were abundant in catch until the early 1990s when these were observed to decline in volume, replaced by smaller and cheaper species. This was coincidental with the rapid decline in mangrove cover for ponds and huge increase in fishing pressure. It is clear that crucial interventions are required to restore the tiger shrimp fisheries in the NWE in order to increase income of local fishers, while promoting reduction of fishing gears and restoration of mangroves. Stock enhancement of tiger shrimps shows good potential in answering these needs. Site-specific assessments were conducted to evaluate prospects of shrimp stock enhancement in NWE. Conservative simulations of capture of released stocks showed that fishers can increase income by 300%. To decrease fishing pressure in the area, number of gears per fisher may have to be reduced but shrimp catches will be relatively high-priced. Comparative experiments using aquaculture techniques were done to identify strategies especially in the delicate intermediate acclimation rearing. Aquaculture protocols like those for pond preparation were also adapted to be used in a mangrove pen nursery rearing system for shrimps. Supplemental feeding with formulated feeds increased carrying capacity of the culture area, while enhancing growth and survival of stocks. Culture experiments showed that shrimps grow to 0.5 g within 1 mo and >1g in 2 mo. High stocking density of 40-60 shrimps m-2 can be used for <2 mo rearing in a mangrove pen. Release experiments showed that 60-d old shrimps have higher chances of survival when released in the estuaries. With strong support from local communities, government and other sectors, together with effective management and law enforcement, aquaculture-based stock enhancement of tiger shrimps can be a viable intervention to restore livelihood and promote estuarine rehabilitation in the NWE.