Aquaculture-based restoration and stock enhancement of tiger shrimps in the Philippines
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PublisherTraining Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
- Conference Proceedings 
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Conference paperAS Camacho & N Macalincag-Lagua - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe aquaculture sector of the Philippine fishing industry registered the highest growth rate of 12.5% in 1977-1986. The contribution of aquaculture to the total fish production was equivalent to 24% in 1986 compared to only 85 in the early 1970's. In terms of quantity, the mariculture subsector registered the highest growth rate of 10.2% in 1982-1986, whereas in terms of value the brackishwater fishpond subsector showed the highest growth rate of 33%. Meanwhile, freshwater aquaculture production exhibited a negative growth rate due to reduction of activities in Laguna de Bay and the slow expansion in hectarage of the commercial freshwater fishponds. Research by several agencies concentrated heavily on the culture of milkfish (Chanos chanos), tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), Chinese carps (Aristichthys nobilis and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), and sea bass (Lates calcarifer). Innovations in seaweed, oyster, and mussel farming are also discussed. Research directions are presented to assure an ecologically sustainable growth in aquaculture with emphasis on countryside development.
Conference paperS Mito - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAlong with the growth of the national economy, aquaculture in Japan has steadily developed in recent years. From 1976 to 1985, production of cultured fish and shellfish increased by 28% from 927 thousand mt to 1184 thousand mt. The contribution of aquaculture to total domestic production constituted 22% in value and 9.7% in weight for 1985. Increase in aquaculture production may be attributed to stronger domestic consumer demand for high grade fish products. The principal species for culture include sea bream (Pagrus major), black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schelegi), yellowtail (Seriola guinqueradiata), Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), pufferfish (Takifugu rubrives), Kuruma ebi (Penaeus japonicus), abalone (Nordicus discus), blood ark shell (Scapharca broughtonii) and edible seaweeds (Porphyra, Undaria, Laminaria). Rapid strides in improved culture techniques have been attained in seed production, grow-out, harvest and disease control in these various species. Present trend show increasing reliance on cultured rather than fishery products to meet market demand. In some species, e.g., coho salmon, rainbow trout, oyster and laver, production depends entirely on culture. In other species, production by aquaculture contribute a significant portion to total production. However, to maintain the balance between supply and demand for certain principal aquaculture products, controlled production is now being practised for certain species. In addition to these trends, technical improvements in aquaculture has led to a decrease in the number of management units and area of facilities devoted to production. In the future, greater efforts will be directed to diversify the species cultured to suit consumer preference. Emphasis will also be placed on improving taste and texture of cultured products. New types of feed that will not pollute areas around the culture facilities will be developed. Remarkable achievements in biotechnology will also be applied in aquaculture to improve seed quality. Parallel with developments in aquaculture, Japan is exerting greater efforts to propagate fishery resources in coastal waters through stock enhancement activities. This is aimed at establishing a multiple fish and shellfish propagation system in the seas surrounding Japan to maintain or increase production from fishery resources.
Conference paperKG Corre - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe results of research on nursery and grow-out rearing of prawn conducted by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department for over a decade are reviewed. Different rearing facilities designed to accommodate hatchery-produced prawn fry are presented with corresponding data on growth, survival and production. Studies on stocking density, fertilization/natural food production, water management, feeds and feeding schemes and harvest/post-harvest handling are evaluated and viable technology identified. Diseases, pests and predators and other factors considered as production constraints are also mentioned. The success in hatchery operation for prawn coupled by the gradual emergence of nursery and grow-out rearing technology have triggered off a technology-dependent prawn industry. When SEAFDEC AQD was established in 1973, there were very few commercial prawn monoculture ventures in the country. Prawn pond production was mostly an incidental crop in milkfish culture. At present, various prawn grow-out techniques ranging from extensive, semi-intensive and intensive culture systems are in practice. SEAFDEC AQD focused its research on the extensive and semi-intensive culture systems which are within the reach of most farmers in contrast to the intensive system that is highly capital-intensive. There have been much work done in nursery and grow-out operations, but much remains to be done in research, among which are the development of nutritionally-efficient and low-cost feed, control of diseases, etc.