Aquafeed development and utilization of alternative dietary ingredients in aquaculture feed formulations in Indonesia
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Fish production from aquaculture in Indonesia continues to grow rapidly from 1.7 million mt in 2009 to 4.0 million mt (excluding seaweed) in 2013. This is consistent with the increase of total aqua feed production from 995,000 mt in 2009 to 1.42 million mt in 2013 and about 90% of feed distributed to the farming area is produced by the feed industry. To meet the demand from the rapidly growing aquaculture industry, there is a need to develop new high-quality protein ingredients to reduce dependence on fish meal (FM). Despite high production of local FM in Indonesia, only around 5% of total production is used for aquafeed and the rest is exported mainly to Japan. Efforts toward reduction of using FM in commercial diets have been done in particular for freshwater species. Nowadays the content of FM in commercial diet for freshwater species is around 5-11%. Shrimp and marine species are still formulated to contain FM in range of 20-30% for shrimp and > 30% for marine species.Utilization of plant ingredients in particular soy bean meal (SBM) has partially replaced FM as dietary protein. However, SBM is also obtained entirely by import as all national production of soybean in the country are for tempe and tofu processing. Since almost 70% of components in commercial diet is imported ingredients, prices of commercial aquafeed increased through the years and are not competitive compared with price of fish in particular those categorized as low value species like carp, tilapia, catfish, Pangasius and milkfish. In several areas in Indonesia including Sumatera and Kalimantan Island, small-scale feed industry or on-farm feed making has been developed by individual or farmer group due to the limited access to commercial diets. Generally, the farmers use local feed ingredients which are available in their areas such as local fish meal, copra/palm cake meal, rice bran and tapioca. However, the quality of the diets produced varies among groups. Many nutritional studies have been conducted to find alternative protein sources. Local animal sources including shrimp head meal, blood meal, golden snail and vermi meal can be included in diet at rate of 8-30% for grouper species. The use of plant ingredients has been extensively evaluated particularly on herbivorous and omnivorous species to develop least-cost diet formulation. Plant ingredients containing > 20% protein such as copra cake meal, rubber seed, Leucaena leaf, and aquatic weed could be used in diet at different levels from 10-60% depending on the species. The presence of anti-nutritional compounds in plant ingredients is the main constraint in their use in aquafeed. Bio-processing using proper microorganism has been developed to improve their quality. More focus and in-depth research to minimize the negative effects of anti-nutritional compounds and to develop technique of their mass production are recommended.
Laining, A., & Kristanto, A. H. (2015). Aquafeed development and utilization of alternative dietary ingredients in aquaculture feed formulations in Indonesia. In M. R. Catacutan, R. M. Coloso, & B. O. Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation : Proceedings of the ASEAN Regional Technical Consultation on Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar (pp. 3-13). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Book chapterNV Golez - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis chapter will help the reader understand and appreciate the basic principles of processing, preparation, storage, and quality control in the preparation of aquafeeds. The material in this section is presented in sequence beginning with the processing of basic ingredients to remove antinutritional factors, followed by steps in feed preparation, from the easiest to the more complex processes, and storage. This chapter presents methods and equipment that are useful not only for feed millers, but also for extension workers and fish farmers.
Conference paperB Sirikul, S Luanprida, K Chaiyakam & R Sriprasert - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture practised in Thailand is in the form of pond culture and cage culture in freshwater, brackishwater and coastal areas. The main species cultured include freshwater prawns, brackishwater shrimp, cockles, mussels, and various freshwater and marine finfishes. There is good potential for increased production from freshwater, brackishwater and marine aquaculture. However, the 1983 production of 145 000 mt represents only about 6% of Thailand's total fish production and production in this subsector has fluctuated widely. It will be several years before aquaculture production will contribute substantially to total production. Nonetheless, the culture of high value species of shrimp and fish could contribute significantly to export earnings during the next 5 to 10 years. Conducted primarily by government agencies, research and development are along the lines of increasing seed supply, establishing new culture techniques or improving older ones. The Department of Fisheries (DOF) together with some private companies have ventured into the development and testing of artificial diets for the various cultured species using a variety of indigenous feed stuffs. It is estimated that with adequate investments and appropriate support, aquaculture production will increase from 145 000 mt in 1983 to 378 000 mt in 1991, showing an annual increase of about 13% over this period. Major increases would come from bivalve mariculture (131 000 mt), brackishwater ponds (36 000 mt) freshwater ponds (46 000 mt) and brackishwater cage culture (20 000 mt).
Book chapterVR Alava - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis chapter teaches the reader to: differentiate the different feeding strategies in pond culture; learn feeding management methods such as stock sampling and record keeping, calculating daily feed ration, choosing appropriate feed size, and methods of applying feeds; understand the impact of feeding management on water quality and environment and on the cultured animal’s growth, survival, and feed conversion ratio; and describe the different feeding schemes used to culture fishes (milkfish, tilapia, rabbitfish, bighead carp, native catfish, sea bass, orange-spotted grouper, and mangrove red snapper; and crustaceans (tiger shrimp and mud crab). Other species for aquaculture stock enhancement (donkey’s ear abalone, seahorses, window-pane oyster) are also discussed.