Status and development and use of alternative dietary ingredients in aquaculture feed formulation in Malaysia
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In 2013, capture fisheries contributed 85% (1.48 million mt) of total fish production in Malaysia. An additional 17.6% (261,000 mt) was recorded as fish-by-catch (FBC). On the contrary, aquaculture contributed 15% (260,800 mt) of the total fish production (49.0% marine fish and 51.0% freshwater fish). An estimated 150,000 mt FBCs were processed to fish meal (FM) producing 30,000 mt FM annually. In 2013, 16,600 mt of FM, valued at MYR50 million (USD15.6 million) were exported while 7,700 mt valued at MYR33 million (USD10.3 million) were imported. FBCs may consist of fish, crustaceans, mollusks and others. The quality of each FBC sample differs depending on the amount of fish and varies with the season and fishing ground. The use of FM, plant protein sources and fish oil (FO) in the aquafeed industry is not known. However, based on marine fish and shrimp feed price, the use of FM and FO in aquafeed was estimated to be 30-40%. Studies on FM and FO replacement in aquafeed using poultry by-product meal, fermented shrimp head waste, soybean meal, palm oil and soybean oil as well as the use of biofloc technology in white shrimp farming were also discussed. In order to improve feed and feeding practices, Department of Fisheries, Malaysia conducted good aquaculture practices on feeding management, feed formulation and fish nutrition courses to stakeholders (farmers and government officials). In addition, there are measures taken to monitor feed and feeding practices through random auditing process in aquaculture farms in Malaysia based on Good Aquaculture Practices (MyGAP) and Animal Feed Act 2009. Due to the increasing price of FM and FO, the aquafeed industry has started to replace in the feed formulations since the increasing feed cost has hindered farmers from buying aquafeed. As a result, there were traces of porcine DNA detected in almost all commercial aquafeed. Additionally, aquaculture farmers tend to formulate their own farm-made aquafeed instead of using commercial pellets. Thus, in order to sustain fish production, Department Fisheries promotes farming and consumption of omnivorous and herbivorous fish species as tilapia, catfish and grass carp. In addition, the Department of Fisheries also organizes Aquaculture Practices Awareness programs among aquafeed manufacturers and farmers to implement relevant rules and act to reduce the use of FM and FO. Lastly, research and development on FM and FO substitution in aquafeed with locally available ingredients are still ongoing and being done by Department of Fisheries, universities and the private sector.
Manaf, M. S. A., & Omar, A. F. M. (2015). Status and development and use of alternative dietary ingredients in aquaculture feed formulation in Malaysia. In M. R. Catacutan, R. M. Coloso, & B. O. Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation : Proceedings of the ASEAN Regional Technical Consultation on Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar (pp. 15-21). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Conference paperB Sirikul, S Luanprida, K Chaiyakam & R Sriprasert - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture practised in Thailand is in the form of pond culture and cage culture in freshwater, brackishwater and coastal areas. The main species cultured include freshwater prawns, brackishwater shrimp, cockles, mussels, and various freshwater and marine finfishes. There is good potential for increased production from freshwater, brackishwater and marine aquaculture. However, the 1983 production of 145 000 mt represents only about 6% of Thailand's total fish production and production in this subsector has fluctuated widely. It will be several years before aquaculture production will contribute substantially to total production. Nonetheless, the culture of high value species of shrimp and fish could contribute significantly to export earnings during the next 5 to 10 years. Conducted primarily by government agencies, research and development are along the lines of increasing seed supply, establishing new culture techniques or improving older ones. The Department of Fisheries (DOF) together with some private companies have ventured into the development and testing of artificial diets for the various cultured species using a variety of indigenous feed stuffs. It is estimated that with adequate investments and appropriate support, aquaculture production will increase from 145 000 mt in 1983 to 378 000 mt in 1991, showing an annual increase of about 13% over this period. Major increases would come from bivalve mariculture (131 000 mt), brackishwater ponds (36 000 mt) freshwater ponds (46 000 mt) and brackishwater cage culture (20 000 mt).
Book | Conference publication
Development and use of alternative ingredients or fish meal substitutes in aquaculture feed formulation: Proceedings of the ASEAN Regional Technical Consultation on Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.) - 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterRecognizing the need for a concerted effort to follow-up on this priority issue of the ASEAN on aquaculture feed development and utilization. SEAFDEC (Aquaculture Department and Secretariat) and the Government of Myanmar organized the 'Regional Technical Consultation (RTC) on development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation'. The meeting was convened with the main purpose of providing a forum for charting the regional priorities and future directions on feed development, particularly on the use of alternative feed ingredients or protein substitutes. The specific objectives were to: (i) review the ASEAN-SEAFDEC member country status, constraints associated with developing alternative dietary ingredients for aquaculture feed; (ii) identify specific advances being made in the region with respect to the development of alternative aquaculture feed ingredients; and (iii) define approaches or initiatives supporting catch reduction of low-value/trash fish; (iv) formulate relevant policy recommendations (regional and country-specific) for effective development and utilization of aquaculture feeds; and (v) enhance cooperation among member countries and relevant stakeholders on initiatives that support sustainable aquaculture practices, particularly on feeds. This publication presents the outputs of the RTC. The country reports and review papers presented during the conference which are contained in this volume are cited individually.
Nursery culture of mud crab, Scylla serrata, using different ratios of natural food to formulated feed VR Alava, JD Sumile & FD Parado-Estepa - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe effect of feeding different ratios of natural food to formulated feed on the production and profitability of Phases 1 and 2 of nursery culture (3 weeks per phase) of hatchery-produced crab Scylla serrata was investigated. The feeds consisted of: mussel meat (M) alone, formulated diet (FD) alone, and their combination at M:FD ratios of 5 : 95, 10 : 90, 15 : 85, 20 : 80, 25 : 75 and 30 : 70. The crabs were stocked randomly in 12-m2 net cages installed in the nursery pond at stocking density of 50 m-2 for Phase 1 and 10 m-2 for Phase 2. Crabs were fed three times daily at 0830, 1300 and 1630 h. Results showed that in both phases, the survival rate, body weight, carapace width, and feed conversion ratio of crabs fed M, FD, and combination at different ratios were not significantly different (p>0.05). Profitability was better in 15 M:85 FD or 20 M :80 FD (Phase 1) and 30 M:70 FD ratio (Phase 2). The use of complete formulated diet as feed for crabs reduced the reliance on wet natural food.