Status and development and use of alternative dietary ingredients in aquaculture feed formulation in Malaysia
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In 2013, capture fisheries contributed 85% (1.48 million mt) of total fish production in Malaysia. An additional 17.6% (261,000 mt) was recorded as fish-by-catch (FBC). On the contrary, aquaculture contributed 15% (260,800 mt) of the total fish production (49.0% marine fish and 51.0% freshwater fish). An estimated 150,000 mt FBCs were processed to fish meal (FM) producing 30,000 mt FM annually. In 2013, 16,600 mt of FM, valued at MYR50 million (USD15.6 million) were exported while 7,700 mt valued at MYR33 million (USD10.3 million) were imported. FBCs may consist of fish, crustaceans, mollusks and others. The quality of each FBC sample differs depending on the amount of fish and varies with the season and fishing ground. The use of FM, plant protein sources and fish oil (FO) in the aquafeed industry is not known. However, based on marine fish and shrimp feed price, the use of FM and FO in aquafeed was estimated to be 30-40%. Studies on FM and FO replacement in aquafeed using poultry by-product meal, fermented shrimp head waste, soybean meal, palm oil and soybean oil as well as the use of biofloc technology in white shrimp farming were also discussed. In order to improve feed and feeding practices, Department of Fisheries, Malaysia conducted good aquaculture practices on feeding management, feed formulation and fish nutrition courses to stakeholders (farmers and government officials). In addition, there are measures taken to monitor feed and feeding practices through random auditing process in aquaculture farms in Malaysia based on Good Aquaculture Practices (MyGAP) and Animal Feed Act 2009. Due to the increasing price of FM and FO, the aquafeed industry has started to replace in the feed formulations since the increasing feed cost has hindered farmers from buying aquafeed. As a result, there were traces of porcine DNA detected in almost all commercial aquafeed. Additionally, aquaculture farmers tend to formulate their own farm-made aquafeed instead of using commercial pellets. Thus, in order to sustain fish production, Department Fisheries promotes farming and consumption of omnivorous and herbivorous fish species as tilapia, catfish and grass carp. In addition, the Department of Fisheries also organizes Aquaculture Practices Awareness programs among aquafeed manufacturers and farmers to implement relevant rules and act to reduce the use of FM and FO. Lastly, research and development on FM and FO substitution in aquafeed with locally available ingredients are still ongoing and being done by Department of Fisheries, universities and the private sector.
Manaf, M. S. A., & Omar, A. F. M. (2015). Status and development and use of alternative dietary ingredients in aquaculture feed formulation in Malaysia. In M. R. Catacutan, R. M. Coloso, & B. O. Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation : Proceedings of the ASEAN Regional Technical Consultation on Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar (pp. 15-21). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Book chapterNV Golez - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis chapter will help the reader understand and appreciate the basic principles of processing, preparation, storage, and quality control in the preparation of aquafeeds. The material in this section is presented in sequence beginning with the processing of basic ingredients to remove antinutritional factors, followed by steps in feed preparation, from the easiest to the more complex processes, and storage. This chapter presents methods and equipment that are useful not only for feed millers, but also for extension workers and fish farmers.
Conference paperB Sirikul, S Luanprida, K Chaiyakam & R Sriprasert - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture practised in Thailand is in the form of pond culture and cage culture in freshwater, brackishwater and coastal areas. The main species cultured include freshwater prawns, brackishwater shrimp, cockles, mussels, and various freshwater and marine finfishes. There is good potential for increased production from freshwater, brackishwater and marine aquaculture. However, the 1983 production of 145 000 mt represents only about 6% of Thailand's total fish production and production in this subsector has fluctuated widely. It will be several years before aquaculture production will contribute substantially to total production. Nonetheless, the culture of high value species of shrimp and fish could contribute significantly to export earnings during the next 5 to 10 years. Conducted primarily by government agencies, research and development are along the lines of increasing seed supply, establishing new culture techniques or improving older ones. The Department of Fisheries (DOF) together with some private companies have ventured into the development and testing of artificial diets for the various cultured species using a variety of indigenous feed stuffs. It is estimated that with adequate investments and appropriate support, aquaculture production will increase from 145 000 mt in 1983 to 378 000 mt in 1991, showing an annual increase of about 13% over this period. Major increases would come from bivalve mariculture (131 000 mt), brackishwater ponds (36 000 mt) freshwater ponds (46 000 mt) and brackishwater cage culture (20 000 mt).
Book chapterVR Alava - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis chapter teaches the reader to: differentiate the different feeding strategies in pond culture; learn feeding management methods such as stock sampling and record keeping, calculating daily feed ration, choosing appropriate feed size, and methods of applying feeds; understand the impact of feeding management on water quality and environment and on the cultured animal’s growth, survival, and feed conversion ratio; and describe the different feeding schemes used to culture fishes (milkfish, tilapia, rabbitfish, bighead carp, native catfish, sea bass, orange-spotted grouper, and mangrove red snapper; and crustaceans (tiger shrimp and mud crab). Other species for aquaculture stock enhancement (donkey’s ear abalone, seahorses, window-pane oyster) are also discussed.