Processing of alternative feed ingredients in aquaculture feed
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Fish meal and fish oil have been used worldwide in aquaculture feed formulations. Production of these ingredients has been relatively constant for decades. However, supplies of industrial fisheries are limited, and unlikely to be able to support increasing demand for these products for a growing aquaculture industry. Finding alternative ingredients therefore, is necessary to address the long-term sustainable growth of aquaculture globally, thereby meeting projected increases in consumer demand for safe, high quality farmed aquatic food. Potential alternative ingredients have been identified, mostly coming from plant-derived nutrient sources, such as seeds, grains, leaves and other agricultural by-products. The use of these alternative ingredients however, may cause anti-nutrient inclusion in the feedstuffs that may interfere with feed utilization and affect the health and production of farmed aquatic products. To get rid of these anti-nutrients, and at the same time improve their nutritive value, various processing techniques (e.g. soaking, moist/dry heat treatment, chemical treatment, dehulling, fermentation), among others may be applied to these ingredients prior to use. Specific obstacles to the use of these ingredients will be the type of treatment, processing procedures and methods required to enhance the nutritive value of the product. Proper evaluation of processed feed ingredients in consideration of factors such as ingredient characterization and functionality, digestibility, palatability, nutrient utilization and/or interference of utilization, influence on immune status and organoleptic qualities, and economic viability need to be done to support their potential effective use in diet formulation. These alternative feed ingredients may offer sound potential when used in the right application. The priorities and future directions of feed manufacturing and researches on alternative feed ingredients with application of proper processing procedures are discussed in this report. The correct use of alternative ingredients with proper application of the right processing techniques may confer significant nutritional and technical advantages to the feed design and management process and may result in high quality feeds for healthy sustainable aquaculture.
Teruel, M. B., & Glencross, B. (2015). Processing of alternative feed ingredients in aquaculture feed. In M. R. Catacutan, R. M. Coloso, & B. O. Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation : Proceedings of the ASEAN Regional Technical Consultation on Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar (pp. 97-104). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Book chapterNV Golez - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis chapter will help the reader understand and appreciate the basic principles of processing, preparation, storage, and quality control in the preparation of aquafeeds. The material in this section is presented in sequence beginning with the processing of basic ingredients to remove antinutritional factors, followed by steps in feed preparation, from the easiest to the more complex processes, and storage. This chapter presents methods and equipment that are useful not only for feed millers, but also for extension workers and fish farmers.
Conference paperB Sirikul, S Luanprida, K Chaiyakam & R Sriprasert - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture practised in Thailand is in the form of pond culture and cage culture in freshwater, brackishwater and coastal areas. The main species cultured include freshwater prawns, brackishwater shrimp, cockles, mussels, and various freshwater and marine finfishes. There is good potential for increased production from freshwater, brackishwater and marine aquaculture. However, the 1983 production of 145 000 mt represents only about 6% of Thailand's total fish production and production in this subsector has fluctuated widely. It will be several years before aquaculture production will contribute substantially to total production. Nonetheless, the culture of high value species of shrimp and fish could contribute significantly to export earnings during the next 5 to 10 years. Conducted primarily by government agencies, research and development are along the lines of increasing seed supply, establishing new culture techniques or improving older ones. The Department of Fisheries (DOF) together with some private companies have ventured into the development and testing of artificial diets for the various cultured species using a variety of indigenous feed stuffs. It is estimated that with adequate investments and appropriate support, aquaculture production will increase from 145 000 mt in 1983 to 378 000 mt in 1991, showing an annual increase of about 13% over this period. Major increases would come from bivalve mariculture (131 000 mt), brackishwater ponds (36 000 mt) freshwater ponds (46 000 mt) and brackishwater cage culture (20 000 mt).
Book chapterVR Alava - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis chapter teaches the reader to: differentiate the different feeding strategies in pond culture; learn feeding management methods such as stock sampling and record keeping, calculating daily feed ration, choosing appropriate feed size, and methods of applying feeds; understand the impact of feeding management on water quality and environment and on the cultured animal’s growth, survival, and feed conversion ratio; and describe the different feeding schemes used to culture fishes (milkfish, tilapia, rabbitfish, bighead carp, native catfish, sea bass, orange-spotted grouper, and mangrove red snapper; and crustaceans (tiger shrimp and mud crab). Other species for aquaculture stock enhancement (donkey’s ear abalone, seahorses, window-pane oyster) are also discussed.