Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) outbreaks in Penaeus vannamei and P. monodon cultured in the Philippines
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Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has recently emerged as a serious disease of cultured shrimp. It has also been described as early mortality syndrome (EMS) due to mass mortalities occurring within 20 to 30 d after stocking of ponds with postlarvae. Here, Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon from shrimp farms in the Philippines were examined for the toxin-producing strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus due to AHPND-like symptoms occurring in marketable size shrimp. In the P. vannamei, histology revealed typical AHPND pathology, such as sloughing of undifferentiated cells in the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium. Analysis using the IQ2000 AHPND/EMS Toxin 1 PCR test generated 218 bp and 432 bp amplicons confirmative of the toxin-producing strain of V. parahaemolyticus among shrimp sampled from 8 of 9 ponds. In the P. monodon, histology revealed massive sloughing of undifferentiated cells of the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium in the absence of basophilic bacterial cells. PCR testing generated the 2 amplicons confirmatory for AHPND among shrimp sampled from 5 of 7 ponds. This study confirms the presence of AHPND in P. vannamei and P. monodon farmed in the Philippines and suggests that the disease can also impact late-stage juvenile shrimp.
Citationde la Peña, L. D., Cabillon, N. A. R., Catedral, D. D., Amar, E. C., Usero, R. C., Monotilla, W. D., ... Saloma, C. P. (2015). Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) outbreaks in Penaeus vannamei and P. monodon cultured in the Philippines.
We are very grateful to DOST-PCAARRD and SEAFDEC/AQD for funding this work and to the Shrimp Pathogenomics team, especially Dr. N. R. L. Rojas and Dr. E. P. Enriquez. We thank the shrimp farms that provided the samples and the staff of Fish Health Section Diagnostic Services and Microtechnique Lab for the technical support. We also thank T. W. Flegel for confirming our histological analysis and for assistance in editing the manuscript.
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Conference paperF Piedad-Pascual - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and Crustacean Feeds and Nutrition. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Fish and Crustacean Feeds and Nutrition, 25-26 February 1985, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and DevelopmentThis paper echoes what transpired during the first International Conference of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps held in Iloilo City in December 4-7, 1984, particularly on the Nutrition nd Feed Development. Around 25 papers were presented during the conference. The nutrient requirements of P. japonicus and to some extent, P. monodon have been studied quite extensively compared to other penaeid species. Requirements for protein, carbohydrates fats, amino acids and essential fatty acids for juveniles and larvae have been defined compared to those of the broodstock. Optimum protein levels for prawn juveniles vary from 28-38% for P. kerathurus, 40-46% for P. monodon, 43% for P. indicus and 50-54% for P. japonicus. Dissacharides like sucrose and trehalose have been found to be good source of carbohydrates at 20-25% in the diet. Crustacean diets require around 0.5% cholesterol. There are few studies on vitamine and mineral requirements. There are artificial diets for juveniles and microencapsulated diets that can completely replace live organisms as larval feed. Microencapsulated diets have been field-tested for P. vannamei, P. stylirostris, P. monodon, P. indicus and P. merguiensis in Ecuador, Taiwan, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines. When a commercial diet for the broodstock becomes available ther will be an artificial diet for athe life cycle of tha prawn.
Development of farming schemes following disease occurrences in monodon shrimp farming using intensive method in three Southeast Asian countries T Matsuura, LD de la Peña, CP Ean, R Siow & AH Alias - In T Matsuura (Ed.), Comparative Analysis of Aquaculture Management in Brackish Mangrove Areas in Three Southeast Asian Countries, 2007 - Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences
Series: JIRCAS Working Report; No. 56All three countries experienced major progress in intensive shrimp farming at different ties. Intensive farming of monodon shrimp (Penaeus monodon, an indigenous species) was first launched by the Philippines, followed by Thailand, then by Peninsular Malaysia. The survey was conducted from 2000-2005. The disease-causing bacterial that seiously damaged monodon culture were luminous bacteria in the Philippines and white spot virus in Thailand and Malaysia. Production decreased because of these diseases in the mid-1990s in the Philippines and after 2000 in Thailand and Malaysia. In 1998, the Green Water System (hereinafter referred to as GWS) was developed, and a proportion of culture ponds introduced it and resumed monodon culture using the intensive method. In Thailand, the vannamei shrimp (Penaeus vannamei, an exotic species from South America) has now replaced monodon previously raised using the extensive method. In Malaysia, monodon is cultured using only the intensive method, and some culture pond enterprises started to culture vannamei instead of monodon in 2004. In the Philippines, companies engaging in monodon culture have many ponds and lower stocking density because they culture large-size shrimp, but are exposed to high running costs such as fuels and probiotics. On the other hand, in Thailand, individuals engaging in monodon culture have few ponds and higher stocking density since they culture small-scale shrimp. Labor costs are low because most of the work is done by family member.
Book chapterGD Lio-Po & EM Leaño - In IC Liao, NH Chao & EM Leaño (Eds.), Progress of Shrimp and Prawn Aquaculture in the World, 2016 - National Taiwan Ocean University; The Fisheries Society of Taiwan; Asian Fisheries Society; World Aquaculture SocietyIn tropical Asia, the two main species of penaeid shrimps that are widely cultured are the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and the Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei). The former species is indigenous in most Asian countries while the latter is indigenous in the Americas and was introduced to Asian countries in the late 1990s. In this chapter, only details of the economically-important microbial infections in Asia in these two penaeid shrimps are presented and arbitrarily grouped as viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic diseases. Viral infections are divided further into two groups: DNA viruses; and, RNA viruses. The infections attributed to DNA viruses are: White Spot Disease (WSD) Disease, Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) previously known as Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV) Disease, Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV) formerly known as Hepatopancreatic Parvo-like Virus (HPV) Disease and Penaeus monodon nucleopoly-hedrovirus (PemoNPV) previously known as Monodon Baculovirus (MBV) Disease. The shrimp infections caused by RNA viruses are: Yellow Head Virus (YHV) Disease, Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) Disease, and Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (IMNV) Disease. For bacterial diseases, the list includes Luminous Bacterial Disease, Non-luminous Vibrio Infections, and Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND). Fungal disease includes Larval mycosis, while parasitic disease includes the current emerging threat to the shrimp industry, the Hepatopancreatic Microsporidiosis caused by Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP).