Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) outbreaks in Penaeus vannamei and P. monodon cultured in the Philippines
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Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has recently emerged as a serious disease of cultured shrimp. It has also been described as early mortality syndrome (EMS) due to mass mortalities occurring within 20 to 30 d after stocking of ponds with postlarvae. Here, Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon from shrimp farms in the Philippines were examined for the toxin-producing strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus due to AHPND-like symptoms occurring in marketable size shrimp. In the P. vannamei, histology revealed typical AHPND pathology, such as sloughing of undifferentiated cells in the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium. Analysis using the IQ2000 AHPND/EMS Toxin 1 PCR test generated 218 bp and 432 bp amplicons confirmative of the toxin-producing strain of V. parahaemolyticus among shrimp sampled from 8 of 9 ponds. In the P. monodon, histology revealed massive sloughing of undifferentiated cells of the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium in the absence of basophilic bacterial cells. PCR testing generated the 2 amplicons confirmatory for AHPND among shrimp sampled from 5 of 7 ponds. This study confirms the presence of AHPND in P. vannamei and P. monodon farmed in the Philippines and suggests that the disease can also impact late-stage juvenile shrimp.
Citationde la Peña, L. D., Cabillon, N. A. R., Catedral, D. D., Amar, E. C., Usero, R. C., Monotilla, W. D., ... Saloma, C. P. (2015). Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) outbreaks in Penaeus vannamei and P. monodon cultured in the Philippines.
We are very grateful to DOST-PCAARRD and SEAFDEC/AQD for funding this work and to the Shrimp Pathogenomics team, especially Dr. N. R. L. Rojas and Dr. E. P. Enriquez. We thank the shrimp farms that provided the samples and the staff of Fish Health Section Diagnostic Services and Microtechnique Lab for the technical support. We also thank T. W. Flegel for confirming our histological analysis and for assistance in editing the manuscript.
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Conference paperF Piedad-Pascual - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and Crustacean Feeds and Nutrition. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Fish and Crustacean Feeds and Nutrition, 25-26 February 1985, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and DevelopmentThis paper echoes what transpired during the first International Conference of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps held in Iloilo City in December 4-7, 1984, particularly on the Nutrition nd Feed Development. Around 25 papers were presented during the conference. The nutrient requirements of P. japonicus and to some extent, P. monodon have been studied quite extensively compared to other penaeid species. Requirements for protein, carbohydrates fats, amino acids and essential fatty acids for juveniles and larvae have been defined compared to those of the broodstock. Optimum protein levels for prawn juveniles vary from 28-38% for P. kerathurus, 40-46% for P. monodon, 43% for P. indicus and 50-54% for P. japonicus. Dissacharides like sucrose and trehalose have been found to be good source of carbohydrates at 20-25% in the diet. Crustacean diets require around 0.5% cholesterol. There are few studies on vitamine and mineral requirements. There are artificial diets for juveniles and microencapsulated diets that can completely replace live organisms as larval feed. Microencapsulated diets have been field-tested for P. vannamei, P. stylirostris, P. monodon, P. indicus and P. merguiensis in Ecuador, Taiwan, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines. When a commercial diet for the broodstock becomes available ther will be an artificial diet for athe life cycle of tha prawn.
Status of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) and other emerging diseases of penaeid shrimps in Viet Nam NT Hien, NTL Huong, VD Chuong, NTV Nga, PH Quang, BTV Hang & NV Long - In RV Pakingking Jr., EGT de Jesus-Ayson & BO Acosta (Eds.), Addressing Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) and Other Transboundary Diseases for Improved Aquatic … Diseases for Improved Aquatic Animal Health in Southeast Asia, 22-24 February 2016, Makati City, Philippines, 2016 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAcute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), formerly called early mortality syndrome (EMS), was first reported in 2010 among penaeid shrimps cultivated in the Mekong Delta Region of Viet Nam albeit without any laboratory confirmation. The disease subsequently spread to a wide range of shrimp production areas in the same region (Soc Trang: 1,719 ha; Bac Lieu: 346 ha; and Ca Mau: 3,493 ha), so that the Government of Viet Nam requested for technical assistance from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations in 2011. In 2012, FAO supported Viet Nam through the project TCP/VIE/3304 Emergency assistance to control the spread of an unknown disease affecting shrimps in Viet Nam, under which the Department of Animal Health of Viet Nam (DAH) collaborated with the University of Arizona and FAO experts to carry out indepth studies to identify the etiologic agent of the disease. As a result, unique isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was identified as the causative agent of AHPND in 2013. Viet Nam has been vigilant and transparent with regard to aquatic animal diseases through official notifications to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA). AHPND outbreaks have no clear temporal pattern with black tiger (Penaeus monodon) and whiteleg (P. vannamei) shrimps showing similar incidence risk. The disease occurs at any stage of shrimp cultivation, i.e. on average about 35 days after stocking. To date, unwarranted outbreaks of AHPND in major shrimp-producing provinces in Viet Nam have been apparently regulated. Aside from AHPND, white spot disease (WSD) has also been a persistent problem responsible for serious economic losses in many shrimp-producing areas in Viet Nam. To prevent and control the further spread of infectious diseases of shrimps including AHPND and WSD, multiple control measures have been implemented including guidance of farmers to improve production conditions, facilities and biosecurity application, active surveillance of shrimp production areas for early warning, screening of broodstock and postlarvae for any OIE listed diseases, regulation on movement of stocks, and collaboration with regional and international organizations in carrying out in-depth epidemiological studies that will be needed in the formulation of pragmatic and holistic disease interventions.
Conference paperMAG Apostol-Albaladejo - In RV Pakingking Jr., EGT de Jesus-Ayson & BO Acosta (Eds.), Addressing Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) and Other Transboundary Diseases for Improved Aquatic … Diseases for Improved Aquatic Animal Health in Southeast Asia, 22-24 February 2016, Makati City, Philippines, 2016 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterShrimp is the fourth most important aquaculture commodity in the Philippines in terms of production quantity and second in terms of export value. The two species of shrimp being cultivated in the Philippines are the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and Pacific white shrimp (P. vannamei). Although shrimp production markedly declined in the 1990 s due to luminescent vibriosis and white spot disease caused by Vibrio harveyi and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), respectively, the industry was able to recover due to collaborative and participatory efforts of both the public and private sectors. Recovery programs focused on improving culture technologies, prevention and control of disease introduction and outbreaks and environmental enhancement. However, serious outbreaks of an emerging transboundary disease named acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) caused by unique strains of V. parahaemolyticus have recently caused heavy economic losses among shrimps growers in some major shrimp producing provinces in the country, thereby threatening production growth and export expansion of the Philippine shrimp industry. This paper presents the status of AHPND in cultured penaeids and activities of the National Shrimp Health Management Program (NSHMP) of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) on importation policies, disease surveillance, monitoring and reporting, disease diagnosis, and preventive and control measures against AHPND and other transboundary diseases of cultured penaeids in the Philippines.