Growth response of cultured larvae of silver therapon Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Kner, 1864) in outdoor tanks in relation to fertilizer type and fish density
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This study evaluated the effects of fertilizer type and fish density on early growth and survival of silver therapon Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Kner, 1864) larvae reared in outdoor tanks. In the first experiment, larvae (1.92 ± 0.09 mm total length) were stocked into nine, 4 m3 tanks at an initial density of 0.5 larvae L-1 and reared for 42 days at an ambient temperature of 28.8–30.7°C. Three treatments with three replicates each were compared: organic (chicken manure, OF) or inorganic fertilizers (ammonium phosphate, IF) applied once every 2 weeks, and the unfertilized (NF) tanks serving as the control group. Water quality, zooplankton densities, survival or growth of L. plumbeus larvae did not vary significantly in either fertilized or unfertilized tanks. Fertilization resulted in elevated nutrient concentrations, which did affect survival (2.10%–6.07%) of the fish larvae. In the second experiment, larvae were stocked at densities of 0.4 or 0.6 larvae L-1 in tanks fertilized at 4–5 days interval with OF and IF for 30 days. Growth performance of L. plumbeus larvae was affected by fish density, with significantly larger (20.04 ± 2.65 mm in total length) and higher specific growth rate (SGR; 6.97 ± 0.48% day-1) at 0.4 larvae L-1 than at 0.6 L-1. Fry production did not vary significantly between fish density treatment groups given the same fertilizer types, but survival rates were improved at 0.4 L-1. Together, production of L. plumbeus larvae in outdoor tanks can be optimized at a lower stocking density, regardless of the type of fertilizer used.
CitationAya, F. A., & Garcia, L. M. B. (2016). Growth response of cultured larvae of silver therapon Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Kner, 1864) in outdoor tanks in relation to fertilizer type and fish density.
Growth rate; Fish; Ammonium compounds; Survival; Growth; Density; Larvae; Zooplankton; Phosphates; Fertilizers; Tanks; Organic wastes; Fry; Water quality; Temperature effects; Fish larvae; Nutrients (mineral); Stocking density; Biological fertilization; Agrochemicals; Ammonium; Ambient temperature; Nutrient concentrations; Fertilization; Above ground tanks; Water tanks; Leiopotherapon plumbeus
This study was funded by SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department under Study Code Nr-01-F2013B. The authors thank Messrs. M.N. Corpuz and N.B. Olorvida for their technical assistance.
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Conference paperMN Duray, CB Estudillo & LG Alpasan - In The Fourth Asian Fisheries Forum: Proceedings of the Fourth Asian Fisheries Forum, Beijing, 16-20 October 1995, 1997 - Asian Fisheries SocietyThe effect of stocking of stocking density and tank size on early growth and survival of grouper, Epinephelus coioides (=suillus) larvae were determined. In one experiment, larvae were stocked in 500L tanks at densities of 5, 10, 20 and 30 per liter and fed rotifers at 15 ind/mL. After 21 d, larvae attained best growth (9.6 mm) and highest survival (32.2%) at 20/L. In another experiment, larvae were stocked at 30/L in 40 L, 200 L and 500 L circular fiberglass tanks. Survival was highest in 500 L (22.3%) and lowest in 40 L tanks (0.5%), but larvae in 200 L tanks were larger (8.2 mm total length, 1.5 mg dry weight) on day 21. Thus in small tanks, 20 larvae/L is the optimum stocking density. In larger tanks of 500 L, 30 larvae/L is feasible.
Conference paperMH Carlos & CB Santiago - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterMost researches conducted at the Binangonan Freshwater Station of the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department were directed toward enhancing growth and survival of the young tilapia and carp in the nursery as well as increasing yields in grow-out cages, pens, and ponds. Studies included the culture and evaluation of phytoplankton and zooplankton as feeds of the tilapia and carp fry to fingerlings; determination of protein and amino acid requirements of young Nile tilapia; development of practical dry diets; evaluation of feeding regimes, feeding rates, and feeding frequencies ; and the use of fertilizers in nursery ponds. For the grow-out aspect, one of the earliest studies demonstrated the profitability of the monoculture of tilapia in cages which triggered the initial proliferation of tilapia cage culture by the private sector in areas near the Station. Subsequently, supplemental feeds were developed and evaluated; non-conventional feedstuffs were tested as feeds or feed components; and the growth rates of Nile tilapia fingerlings in cages at varying stocking densities were evaluated at three distinct rearing periods covering one year. Prior to the successful mass production of bighead carp fingerlings at the Station, studies on polyculture of tilapia, milk fish, and different species of carp were conducted in cages and pens with remarkable results. This led to the technology-verification projects on polyculture at various areas in Laguna Lake. With the availability of freshwater fishponds for research purposes, studies on polyculture in ponds were also conducted.
Conference paperKG Corre - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe results of research on nursery and grow-out rearing of prawn conducted by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department for over a decade are reviewed. Different rearing facilities designed to accommodate hatchery-produced prawn fry are presented with corresponding data on growth, survival and production. Studies on stocking density, fertilization/natural food production, water management, feeds and feeding schemes and harvest/post-harvest handling are evaluated and viable technology identified. Diseases, pests and predators and other factors considered as production constraints are also mentioned. The success in hatchery operation for prawn coupled by the gradual emergence of nursery and grow-out rearing technology have triggered off a technology-dependent prawn industry. When SEAFDEC AQD was established in 1973, there were very few commercial prawn monoculture ventures in the country. Prawn pond production was mostly an incidental crop in milkfish culture. At present, various prawn grow-out techniques ranging from extensive, semi-intensive and intensive culture systems are in practice. SEAFDEC AQD focused its research on the extensive and semi-intensive culture systems which are within the reach of most farmers in contrast to the intensive system that is highly capital-intensive. There have been much work done in nursery and grow-out operations, but much remains to be done in research, among which are the development of nutritionally-efficient and low-cost feed, control of diseases, etc.